DC -- Foggy Bottom -- Organization of American States -- Main Bldg + Museum Exterior:
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- Specific picture descriptions: Photos above with "i" icons next to the bracketed sequence numbers (e.g. " ") are described as follows:
- OAS_180502_001.JPG: Marta Minujin
- OAS_180502_024.JPG: Eloy Alfaro
President Del Ecuador
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This name uses Spanish naming customs: the first or paternal family name is Alfaro and the second or maternal family name is Delgado.
José Eloy Alfaro Delgado (June 25, 1842 – January 28, 1912) was an Ecuadorian politician who served as the President of Ecuador from 1895 to 1901 and from 1906 to 1911. Alfaro became one of the strongest opponents of pro-Catholic conservative President Gabriel Garcia Moreno (1821–1875) and was known as the Viejo Luchador ("Old Warrior") for playing a central role in the Liberal Revolution of 1895 and having fought conservatism for almost 30 years.
Alfaro's major political legacies are considered to be strengthened national unity, securing the integrity of Ecuador's borders, the increased secularization of the country. Alfaro led the modernization of Ecuadorian society through the introduction of new ideas, education, and systems of public transport and communication, including the engineering feat of the Transandino railway linking Guayaquil with Quito. Alfaro's effigy appeared on the Ecuadorian 50-cent coin from the 2000 issue, and the Ecuadorian Army's military college bears his name, as does the Presidente Eloy Alfaro, the flagship of the Ecuadorian Navy.
- OAS_180502_029.JPG: Cordell Hull
"Let each American nation vie with the other in the practice of the policy of the good neighbor."
"Peace must be our passion"
- OAS_180502_112.JPG: Juana Inés de la Cruz
Juana Inés de la Cruz
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, O.S.H. (English: Sister Joan Agnes of the Cross; 12 November 1648 – 17 April 1695), was a self-taught scholar and student of scientific thought, philosopher, composer, and poet of the Baroque school, and Hieronymite nun of New Spain. She was known as a nun who demonstrated the courage to challenge opinions and speak out for her beliefs. Her outspoken opinion granted her lifelong names such as, "The Tenth Muse", "The Phoenix of America", or the "Mexican Phoenix".
Sor Juana lived during Mexico's colonial period, making her a contributor both to early Mexican literature as well as to the broader literature of the Spanish Golden Age. Beginning her studies at a young age, Sor Juana was fluent in Latin and also wrote in Nahuatl, and became known for her philosophy in her teens. Sister Juana educated herself in her own library, which was mostly inherited from her grandfather. After joining a nunnery in 1667, Sor Juana began writing poetry and prose dealing with such topics as love, feminism, and religion. She turned her nun's quarters into a salon, visited by the city's intellectual elite. Among them was Countess Maria Luisa de Paredes, vicereine of Mexico. The two women became passionate friends. It's unclear whether they were lesbians by today's definition, but Maria Luisa inspired Sor Juana to write amorous love poems, such as:
That you're a woman far away
is no hindrance to my love:
for the soul, as you well know,
distance and sex don't count.
However it was not for her lesbian poetry but for her criticism of the misogyny and the hypocrisy of men that she has been condemned by the Bishop of Puebla, and in 1694 she was forced to sell her collection of books and focus on charity towards the poor. She died the next year, having caught the plague while treating her fellow nuns.
- OAS_180502_119.JPG: Poets' Bench
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Félix Rubén García Sarmiento (January 18, 1867 – February 6, 1916), known as Rubén Darío, was a Nicaraguan poet who initiated the Spanish-American literary movement known as modernismo (modernism) that flourished at the end of the 19th century. Darío has had a great and lasting influence on 20th-century Spanish literature and journalism. He has been praised as the "Prince of Castilian Letters" and undisputed father of the modernismo literary movement.
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- Wikipedia Description: Organization of American States
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Organization of American States (OAS, or, as it is known in the three other official languages, OEA) is an international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States. Its members are the thirty-five independent states of the Americas.
The notion of closer hemispheric union in the American continent was first put forward by Simón Bolívar who, at the 1826 Congress of Panama, proposed creating a league of American republics, with a common military, a mutual defense pact, and a supranational parliamentary assembly. This meeting was attended by representatives of Gran Colombia (comprising the modern-day nations of Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela), Peru, the United Provinces of Central America, and Mexico, but the grandly titled "Treaty of Union, League, and Perpetual Confederation" was ultimately only ratified by Gran Colombia. Bolívar's dream soon floundered with civil war in Gran Colombia, the disintegration of Central America, and the emergence of national rather than continental outlooks in the newly independent American republics.
The pursuit of regional solidarity and cooperation again came to the forefront in 1889–90, at the First International Conference of American States. Gathered together in Washington, D.C., 18 nations resolved to found the International Union of American Republics, served by a permanent secretariat called the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics (renamed the "International Commercial Bureau" at the Second International Conference in 1901–02). These two bodies, in existence as of 14 April 1890, represent the point of inception to which today's OAS and its General Secretariat trace their origins.
At the Fourth International Conference of American States (Buenos Aires, 1910), the name of the organization was changed to the "Union of American Republics" and the Bureau became the "Pan American Union".
The experience of World War II convinced hemispheric governments that unilateral action could not ensure the territorial integrity of the American nations in the event of extra-continental aggression. To meet the challenges of global conflict in the postwar world and to contain conflicts within the hemisphere, they adopted a system of collective security, the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty) signed in 1947 in Rio de Janeiro.
The Ninth International Conference of American States was held in Bogotá between March and May 1948 and led by U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall, a meeting which led to a pledge by members to fight communism in America. This was the event that saw the birth of the OAS as it stands today, with the signature by 21 American countries of the Charter of the Organization of American States on 30 April 1948 (in effect since December 1951). The meeting also adopted the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, the world's first general human rights instrument.
The transition from the Pan American Union to OAS was smooth. The Director General of the former, Alberto Lleras Camargo, became the Organization's first Secretary General. The current Secretary General is former Chilean foreign minister José Miguel Insulza.
Significant milestones in the history of the OAS since the signing of the Charter have included the following:
* 1959: Inter-American Commission on Human Rights created.
* 1961: Charter of Punta del Este signed, launching the Alliance for Progress.
* 1969: American Convention on Human Rights signed (in force since 1978).
* 1970: OAS General Assembly established as the Organization's supreme decision-making body.
* 1979: Inter-American Court of Human Rights created.
* 1991: Adoption of Resolution 1080, which requires the Secretary General to convene the Permanent Council within ten days of a coup d'état in any member country.
* 1994: First Summit of the Americas (Miami), which resolved to establish a Free Trade Area of the Americas by 2005.
* 2001: Inter-American Democratic Charter adopted.
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