DC -- Library of Congress -- Exhibit (Agile): NAACP The Fight for Freedom:
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LOCNAA_190206_05.JPG: The NAACP
The Fight for Freedom
Migration of African Americans after World War I
World War I created a transformation for African Americans. Thousands moved from the rural South to the industrial urban North, pursuing a new vision of social and economic opportunity. During the war African American troops fought abroad "to keep the world safe for democracy." They returned home determined to achieve fuller participation in American society.
LOCNAA_190206_08.JPG: African American Soldiers in World War I
During World War I, African American servicemen faced discrimination despite their service. Conceding that the government would not admit blacks to white training camps, the NAACP supported Joel Springarn's 1917 call for a segregated officers' training camp. The War Department established a separate camp in Des Moines, Iowa, and Spingarn helped recruit the 1,250 enrollees, mostly college students or graduates. But treatment of African American trainees was deplorable, and after basic training, most black servicement were assigned to labor units.
LOCNAA_190206_20.JPG: NAACP Women Aid the American Expeditionary Forces
Kathryn Margolia Johnson (1878-1955), a high school teacher, worked for the NAACP as a field agent from 1913 to 1916, establishing branches in the Midwest and South. Addie Waites Hunton (1866-1943), a fellow teacher, worked as a NAACP field organizer from 1921 to 1924 and helped arrange the 1927 Pan-African Congress. In 1918 Johnson and Hunton sailed for France as YMCA workers to aid black troops. They wrote about their experience in this book, Two Colored Women with the American Expeditionary Forces.
LOCNAA_190206_26.JPG: The Amenia Conference Pamphlet
In 1916, one year after the death of Booker T. Washington, the NAACP issued a call for a conference of black leaders to unite Washington's supporters and NAACP activists behind a common program. W.E.B. DuBois and Joel Spingarn held the conference August 24-26, at Troutbeck, Spingarn's estate near Amenia, New York. The roughly fifty conferees adopted a "United Platform" that affirmed all forms of education for blacks and political freedom. The Amenia Conference marked the NAACP's ascent as the dominant force in the civil rights movement.
LOCNAA_190206_35.JPG: The Amenia Conference, 1916
This photograph shows some of the men and women who attended the Amenia Conference in 1916. Included are NAACP activists Addie Hunton, Mary Church Terrell, Mary Talbert (Second row, left to right; 1st, 3rd, and 4th), Arthur Spingarn, William Pickens, and Charles W. Chesnutt (First row, left to right, 1st, 2nd, and 4th). Among the other conferees were Booker T. Washington allies Henry Hunt, Emmet J. Scott, Fred Moore, J. Rosamond Johnson, and James Weldon Johnson (not shown); Miagarites Charles E. Bentley, L.M. Hershaw, and Mason Hawkins (not shown), and educators Kelly Miller and Lucy Laney (Second row, left to right: 5th and 7th).
LOCNAA_190206_44.JPG: The NAACP
The Fight for Freedom
The philosophy of the civil rights movement shifted from the "accommodationist" approach of Booker T. Washington to the military advocacy of W.E.B. Du Bois. These forces converged to help create the "New Negro Movement" of the 1920s, which promoted a renewed sense of racial pride, cultural self-expression, economic independence, and progressive politics.
LOCNAA_190206_46.JPG: W.E.B. Du Bois
W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963), an eminent scholar-activist, was born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. A graduate of Fisk and Harvard universities, he became a pioneer in the fields of sociology and black history. While a professor at Atlanta University he cofounded the Niagara Movement and the NAACP, and emerged as a leader in the Pan-African Movement. Du Bois left academia in 1910 to become the NAACP's director of publicity and research, its only black officer at that time. He resigned in 1934, but later returned to the NAACP at director of special research from 1944 to 1948.
LOCNAA_190206_51.JPG: James Weldon Johnson
James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938) was born in Jacksonville, Florida, and educated at Atlanta University. He began his multifaceted career in Jacksonville as a public school principal, lawyer, and newspaper publishes. In 1901, he moved to New York to become the songwriting partner of his brother Rosamond (1863-1954). From 1906 to 1912, he served as US Counsel of Venezuela and Nicaragua on the recommendation of Booker T. Washington and in 1914 he became an editor of Washintgon's New York Age. His association with the NAACP began in 1916 and lasted until 1931.
LOCNAA_190206_55.JPG: First Secretary William Pickens
William Pickens (1881-1954), a founding member of the Niagara Movement and the NAACP, was the son of South Carolina sharecroppers. Bright and ambitious, he excelled at Talladega College and graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Yale in 1904. For sixteen years he worked as a professor and academic administrator. While teaching at Morgan College, he helped Joel Spingarn organize the Louisville branch of the NAACP and prepare the case Buchannan v. Warley, which concerned residential segregation.
LOCNAA_190206_69.JPG: Walter White
Walter White (1893-1955) was reared and educated among Atlanta's black middle class. After graduating from college in 1916, he became an insurance salesman and secretary of the local NAACP branch. In 1918 the NAACP hired White as assistant secretary at the national office on the recommendation of his mentor James Weldon Johnson. White won international acclaim for his crusade against mob violence, personally investigating forty-one lynchings and eight race riots. In 1931, he succeeded Johnson as NAACP executive secretary.
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2019 photos: Equipment this year: I continued to use my Fuji XS-1 cameras but, depending on the event, I also used a Nikon D7000.
Trips this year:
a four-day jaunt to Massachusetts (Boston, Stockbridge, and Springfield) to experience rain in another state,
Asheville, NC to visit Dad and his wife Dixie,
four trips to New York City (including the United Nations, Flushing, and the New York Comic-Con), and
my 14th consecutive San Diego Comic-Con (including sites in Utah).
Number of photos taken this year: about 582,000.