NY -- NYC -- New York Public Library -- Exhibit: Gutenberg Meets the Transistor:
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Copyrights: All pictures were taken by amateur photographer Bruce Guthrie (me!) who retains copyright on them. Free for non-commercial use with attribution. See the [Creative Commons] definition of what this means. "Photos (c) Bruce Guthrie" is fine for attribution. Feel free to use in publications and pages with attribution but you don't have permission to sell the photos themselves. A free copy of any printed publication using any photographs is requested. Descriptive text, if any, is from a mixture of sources, quite frequently from signs at the location or from official web sites; copyrights, if any, are retained by their original owners.
Specific picture descriptions: Photos above with "i" icons next to the bracketed sequence numbers (e.g. " ") are described as follows:
NYPGMT_190826_05.JPG: Antique Wood and Metal Type
Beginning in the late 1430s, Johann Gutenberg, a German goldsmith, undertook the development of a new method of printing that ultimately revolutionized the production of books. His combined innovations -- conceiving the use and manufacture of moveable metal type, formulating oil-based printing ink, and employing a wooden press, similar to those used for agricultural purposes, for printing -- contributed directly to the Renaissance, spurring literacy and intellectual progress throughout the European continent and, eventually, other parts of the world.
Gutenberg's technological advances in the area of printing remained dominant until the first decades of the nineteenth century, when automated steam presses began to be used. Subsequent developments, such as the advent of photographing typesetting and, later, electronic typesetting, further revolutionized the printing industry. As printers adopted these newer methods of typesetting, the metal and wood block type that had been used for centuries were rendered commercially obsolete and other discarded.
As the former publisher of the Missoulian, a Montana newspaper, I have for many years rescued type and other materials used in letterpress printing in order to create one-of-a-kind works of art. These antique wood-type sculptures are my attempt to preserve and present this unique art form for the ages.
Lloyd Schermer, Artist
NYPGMT_190826_12.JPG: Gutenberg Meets the Transistor
An Antique Wood Type Sculpture
Lloyd Schermer * 2018
NYPGMT_190826_20.JPG: The Printing Press and the Bell Labs Transistor
Prior to the mid-fifteenth century, most books produced in Western Europe were copied by hand. For this reason, among others, the production of texts tended to be both slow and limited. Johann Gutenberg's pioneering efforts with the printing press, however, greatly increased the availability of books and other textual materials, contributing directly to the Renaissance, the rebirth of learning across the European continent.
Five centuries later, information technology took another leap forward with the development of the transistor. Created by John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley at Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1947, the transistor is a switch that is used to turn electronic signals on and off. Modern computers contain millions of these transistor switches; all actions performed by a computer are the result of a unique combination of transistors set to on or off.
Binary code represents these on/off combinations as 1s and 0s, with each digit standing for one transistor. Binary code is gathered into bytes, which are groups of 8 digits representing 8 transistors. When you type a letter on a computer keyboard, the letter is converted into a specific code. For example, the binary code of the character "G" is 01000111.
Binary codes can be stored, reproduced, manipulated, and transmitted at almost the speed of light. As you read text on the screen of your computer, phone, or other electronic device, you are seeing the visual representation of binary coding, enabled by transistors. You are also experiencing the digital revolution, a transformation as seminal as the one instigated by Gutenberg and other early printers.
Note: Attached below are a transistor and a piece of metal type.
Lloyd Schermer, Artist
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Signage: You'll see a lot of signs in this group. Eventually, I'll type the text of the signs into the subject description and get rid of the signs themselves. This is pretty slow and tedious work though.
Bigger photos? To save space on the server and because the modern camera images are so large, photos larger than 640x480 have not been loaded on this page. If you need the bigger sizes of selected photos, email me and I can email them back to you or I can re-load this page temporarily with the bigger versions restored.
2019 photos: Equipment this year: I continued to use my Fuji XS-1 cameras but, depending on the event, I also used a Nikon D7000.
Trips this year:
a four-day jaunt to Massachusetts (Boston, Stockbridge, and Springfield) to experience rain in another state,
Asheville, NC to visit Dad and his wife Dixie,
three trips to New York City (including the United Nations, Flushing, and the New York Comic-Con), and
my 14th consecutive San Diego Comic-Con (including sites in Utah).
That's it so far!
Partially Reviewed: Rough draft. I've gone through these pictures once, removing the worst ones, some duplication, etc. I usually take sequences of 4 or 5 pictures at a time and there are lots of near duplicates. I'll be doing a final review later which will cull the pictures down some. To be honest though, I'm way behind on doing final reviews.