MO -- St. Louis -- Gateway Arch -- Museum of Westward Expansion -- Manifest Destiny:
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MWXMAN_180918_009.JPG: By War or by Treaty, the United States was Determined to Expand
MWXMAN_180918_011.JPG: The North was Taken from Mexico
MWXMAN_180918_015.JPG: Sign a Treaty, or Stand and Fight?
MWXMAN_180918_019.JPG: Juan Seguin
"A victim to the wickedness of a few men... a foreigner in my native land."
MWXMAN_180918_022.JPG: "A war unnecessarily and unconstitutionally begun by the President of the United States"
-- George Ashmun, Massachusetts Congressman, January 3, 1848
MWXMAN_180918_025.JPG: After hard-won battles on the outskirts of the Mexican capital, Gen. Winfield Scott believed he might have to fight house to house to gain control of the city. Instead, on September 14, 1847, representatives of the Mexican government surrendered the city to the Americans.
MWXMAN_180918_028.JPG: Why Did the U.S. Build a Chain of Western Forts?
MWXMAN_180918_034.JPG: A War with Mexico Began
MWXMAN_180918_036.JPG: The Mexican-American War -- 1846-1848
MWXMAN_180918_044.JPG: What Story is Told in These Paintings?
MWXMAN_180918_046.JPG: Crafted Images
MWXMAN_180918_052.JPG: What Do You See?
MWXMAN_180918_056.JPG: Susan Shelby Magoffin
An American Teen Recorded Her Coming of Age on the Santa Fe Trail
MWXMAN_180918_104.JPG: A Treaty to Preserve the Peace
MWXMAN_180918_106.JPG: A Treaty to Share the Land
MWXMAN_180918_109.JPG: The Cow that Started a War
MWXMAN_180918_112.JPG: John Tyler Medal
During the early 1840s, as the idea of Manifest Destiny took hold in the United States, the federal government distributed very few peace medals. Most Indian tribes had been moved west of the Mississippi.
MWXMAN_180918_118.JPG: James K. Polk Medal
Of the large number made, only 34 medals were given out during the Polk presidency. Most of the mint's production was melted down to make subsequent medals. During this period the United States acquired over one million square miles of land by annexing the Texas Republic, dividing the Oregon Country with Great Britain by treaty and taking Mexico's northern territories by conquest.
Indians living in these lands, especially in California, were subject to attacks and displacement.
MWXMAN_180918_121.JPG: Zachary Taylor Medal
Like the Polk medals from which they were made, few of Taylor's medals were distributed. The silver was one again melted down when President Taylor died in office in 1850.
During the 1840s, as small numbers of peace medals were given to Indian chiefs, they began to attract interest among European and American collectors. A special law passed in 1861 allowed collectors to possess them. From then on newly-minted silver medals were reserved for the Indians, while bronze medals were made for sale to collectors.
MWXMAN_180918_130.JPG: Millard Fillmore Medal
The Fillmore peace medal was the first in over 40 years that did not use the clasped hands of friendship on the reverse. The government introduced new symbols such as the plow and ax, which reflected increasing efforts to educate, "civilize" and Christianize Indians.
While little land left to "remove" American Indians to, government agents believed that reservations should be established to restrict, protect and educate Indians. Peace medals were used to designate tribal leaders who were willing to ask their people to accept reservation life.
MWXMAN_180918_135.JPG: Franklin Pierce Medal
The land treaties negotiated under President Pierce ushered in a period of unsuccessful diplomacy and great bitterness with Indian tribes. As a result of 52 different treaties during this period, the United States acquired 174 million acres of Indian lands.
Most of these treaties provided the Indians with rations, money, or hunting rights, but promised were often unfulfilled. Such betrayals seriously hurt diplomacy and lessened the value of the peace medal as a symbol of trust.
MWXMAN_180918_176.JPG: The Blue Water (Ash Hollow) Massacre
MWXMAN_180918_180.JPG: Harriet Scott
"On and on we journeyed -- averaging 15 miles a day over cactus, sagebrush, hot sand. Everybody's shoes gave out and we bartered with Indians for moccasins."
MWXMAN_180918_183.JPG: Effects of Overland Migrations
MWXMAN_180918_186.JPG: Trails Cut a Swath Across the Prairie
MWXMAN_180918_189.JPG: Conflict on the Trail
MWXMAN_180918_192.JPG: Indians Fight for Their Lands
MWXMAN_180918_194.JPG: Coins of the State of Deseret
MWXMAN_180918_213.JPG: Specialized Tools on the Trail
MWXMAN_180918_215.JPG: Why Go West?
MWXMAN_180918_218.JPG: Emigrants Move West
MWXMAN_180918_221.JPG: A Mass Migration Stakes a Claim to the Far West
MWXMAN_180918_224.JPG: Overland Trails to the West
MWXMAN_180918_228.JPG: George Bush
After 2,000 miles, Oregon Did Not Welcome Them
MWXMAN_180918_231.JPG: Search for the Best Rail Routes
MWXMAN_180918_233.JPG: Riding in a Stagecoach
MWXMAN_180918_235.JPG: The Stagecoach
MWXMAN_180918_253.JPG: In a War of Cultures, American Indians Push Back
MWXMAN_180918_263.JPG: Benjamin Harrison Medal
The Harrison medals were the last produced by the United States as official Indian peace medals.
MWXMAN_180918_266.JPG: Unofficial Peace Medal
After the United States stopped producing peace medals in 1896, many American Indians still wanted them. Medals like this were made of molded metal -- some of them by American Indians.
MWXMAN_180918_269.JPG: Ulysses S. Grant Peace Medal, 1871
Both sides of the Grant medal were so cluttered with images of peace and agriculture that there was no room left for the president's name. Despite good intentions, the years of Grant's "peace policy" were some of the most violent of any President, as Indians resisted confinement on reservations.
MWXMAN_180918_283.JPG: Charles Eastman
The 1933 "Indian Achievement Award" Went to an Organizer, Physician and Writer
MWXMAN_180918_286.JPG: Red Cloud Fought for His People -- "All I Want is What is Right and Just"
MWXMAN_180918_288.JPG: Indians Fought to Defend Their Cultures and Traditions
MWXMAN_180918_291.JPG: With Peaceful Options Exhausted, Indians Fought for Their Way of Life
MWXMAN_180918_305.JPG: How Different Cultures Used the Buffalo in the Late 1800s
MWXMAN_180918_310.JPG: Colonial St. Louis
MWXMAN_180918_315.JPG: France and Great Britain Battled to Control North America
A War Gave Birth to St. Louis
MWXMAN_180918_317.JPG: Spanish Peace Medal -- Carlos III
Peace medals were given to tribal leaders to form trad alliances.
MWXMAN_180918_325.JPG: Why Did Spain Govern "French" St. Louis?
MWXMAN_180918_337.JPG: A Hilltop Fort Helped St. Louis Stand Strong
MWXMAN_180918_340.JPG: Outnumbered Defenders Win the Day
MWXMAN_180918_343.JPG: What Would You Pay for the Louisiana Territory?
MWXMAN_180918_349.JPG: Napoleon Was Eager to SELL the Louisiana Territory
MWXMAN_180918_351.JPG: Jefferson was Eager to BUY New Orleans
MWXMAN_180918_354.JPG: The Right of Deposit Withdrawn, 1802
MWXMAN_180918_357.JPG: Negotiations for the Louisiana Purchase
MWXMAN_180918_360.JPG: Although Spain returned Louisiana to France by secret treaty in 1800, a formal transfer did not take place for New Orleans until November 30, 1803. Twenty days later, on December 20, 1803, the City of New Orleans and the land now within the modern state of Louisiana was transferred from France to the United States.
MWXMAN_180918_365.JPG: The Louisiana Purchase -- 1803
MWXMAN_180918_383.JPG: Effects on the French
For the French-speaking residents of the territory, the Louisiana Purchase ended many of their connections to their home country. As new Americans, they were expected to speak English and the American system of laws and culture were imposed. Many savvy French-speaking St. Louis fur traders worked with the Americans to ensure continued success. Americans slave laws were harsher and a new attitude favored segregation.
MWXMAN_180918_386.JPG: Effects on the Spanish
The Spanish Government lost Louisiana as a buffer zone of territory blocking westward-moving Americans from Texas, Santa Fe and the silver mines of Mexico. New Orleans no longer generated import and export duties for the Spanish empire. The Spanish could not use St. Louis as a "listening post" to gather information about the Americans. Several former Spanish soldiers and officials stayed in St. Louis to make new lives as Americans.
MWXMAN_180918_390.JPG: Effects on the Americans
Granting statehood to the region was discouraged as many felt the new residents were unworthy to become full-fledged American citizens. They welcomed the addition of the City of New Orleans as a money-making port. The Purchase solved the problem of Midwestern farmers getting their goods to world markets. The fur trade soon became an important American business with the addition of the Louisiana Territory.
MWXMAN_180918_395.JPG: Effects on American Indians
American Indians found that they were less important as trading partners with the Americans -- who, unlike the French -- preferred to do the hunting and trapping themselves. Indian tribes who lived east of the Mississippi were urged by American officials to leave their tribal homelands and move west, making room for settlers. Instead of coexisting with Indians, the Americans wanted to use the Louisiana Territory as a giant Indian reservation.
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Wikipedia Description: Jefferson National Expansion Memorial
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Jefferson National Expansion Memorial is located in St. Louis, Missouri near the starting point of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. It was designated as a National Memorial by Executive Order 7523, on December 21, 1935, and is maintained by the National Park Service (NPS).
The park was established to commemorate several historical events:
* the Louisiana Purchase, and the subsequent westward movement of American explorers and pioneers;
* the first civil government west of the Mississippi River;
* the debate over slavery raised by the Dred Scott case.
The memorial site consists of a 91 acres (37 ha) park along the Mississippi River on the site of the original city of St. Louis; the Old Courthouse, a former state and federal courthouse which saw the origins of the Dred Scott case; the 4,200 m2 (45,000 sq ft) Museum of Westward Expansion; and most notably, the Gateway Arch, an inverted steel catenary arch that has become the definitive icon of the city.
Today, the park is host to four million visitors each year, three quarters of whom enter the Arch or the Old Courthouse.
The Gateway Arch:
Main article: Gateway Arch
The Gateway Arch is known as the "Gateway to the West". It was designed by Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen and structural engineer Hannskarl Bandel in 1947 and built between 1963 and 1968. It is the only building in the world based on the catenary arch, making it the iconic image of the city. It stands 192.024 meters (630 ft) tall and 192.024 meters (630 ft) wide at its base. The legs are 16.46 meters (54 ft) wide at the base, narrowing to 5.18 meters (17 ft) at the arch. There is a unique tram system to carry passengers to the observation room at the top of the arch.
Main article: Old Courthouse
The Old Courthouse is built on land originally deeded by St. Louis founder Auguste Chouteau. It marks the location over which the arch reaches. Its dome was built during the American Civil War and is similar to the dome on the United States Capitol which was also built during the Civil War. It was the site of the local trials in the Dred Scott case.
The courthouse is the only portion of the memorial west of I-70. To the west of the Courthouse is a Greenway between Market and Chestnut Streets which is only interrupted by the Civil Courts Building which features a pyramid model of the Mausoleum of Maussollos (which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World) on its roof. When Civil Courts building was built in the 1920s the Chouteau family sued to regain the property belonging the Old Courthouse because it had been deeded in perpetuity to be a courthouse.
Museum of Westward Expansion:
Underneath the Arch is a visitor center, entered from a descending outdoor ramp starting at either base. Within the center is the Museum of Westward Expansion, exhibits on the history of the St. Louis riverfront, and tram loading and unloading areas. Tucker Theater, finished in 1968 and renovated 30 years later, has about 285 seats and shows a documentary (Monument to the Dream) on the Arch's construction. Odyssey Theater, designed by Cox/Croslin Architects was completed in 1993 and has 255 seats. It was the first 70 mm film theater to be located on National Park Service grounds and operated by the NPS. The theater runs films from a rotating play list. Also located in the visitor center are retail operations run by the Jefferson National Parks Association, a not-for-profit partner.
The memorial was developed largely through the efforts of St. Louis civic booster Luther Ely Smith who first pitched the idea in 1933, was the long-term chairman of the committee that selected the area and persuaded Franklin Roosevelt in 1935 to make it a national park after St. Louis passed a bond issue to begin building it, and who partially financed the 1947 architectural contest that selected the Arch.
In the early 1930s the United States began looking for a suitable memorial for Thomas Jefferson (the Washington Monument and the newly built Lincoln Memorial were the only large Presidential memorials at the time).
Shortly after Thanksgiving in 1933 Smith who had been on the commission to build the George Rogers Clark National Historical Park in Indiana, was returning via train when he noticed the poor condition or the original platted location of St. Louis along the Mississippi. He thought that the memorial to Jefferson should be on the actual location that was symbolic of one of Jefferson's greatest triumphs -- the Louisiana Purchase.
The originally platted area of St. Louis included:
* Site of the Spanish capital of Louisiana (New Spain) (basically the entire Louisiana Purchase area north of Louisiana from the city's founding in 1764 until it was turned .
* Site of the Battle of Saint Louis, the only battle west of the Mississippi River in the American Revolutionary War
* Site of the Three Flags Day ceremony in 1804 in which Spain turned over Louisiana to France for less than 24 hour before it was turned over to the United States clearing the way for Lewis and Clark to legally begin their exploration (which Spain had specifically prohibited)
* Site of the first capital of Upper Louisiana for the United States
Almost all of the historic buildings associated with this period had been replaced by newer buildings. His idea was to raze all of the buildings in the original St. Louis platted area and replace it with a park with "a central feature, a shaft, a building, an arch, or something which would symbolize American culture and civilization."
Smith pitched the idea to Bernard Dickmann who quickly assembled a meeting of St. Louis civic leaders on December 15, 1933 at the Jefferson Hotel and they endorsed the plan and Smith became chairman of what would become the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Association (a position he would hold until 1949 with a one-year exception).
The Commission then defined the area, got cost estimates of $30 million to buy the land, clear the buildings and erect a park and monument. With promises from the federal government (via the United States Territorial Expansion Memorial Commission) to join if the City of St. Louis could raise money.
The area to be included in the park was the Eads Bridge/Washington Avenue on the north and Poplar Street on the south, the Mississippi River on the east Third Street (now I-70) on the west plus the Old Courthouse just west of Third Street (the Courthouse was actually added in 1940).
The only building in this area not included was the Old Cathedral, which is on the site of St. Louis first church and was opposite the home of St. Louis founder Auguste Chouteau. The founders of the city were buried in its graveyard (but were moved in 1849 to Bellefontaine Cemetery during a cholera outbreak).
Taking away 40 blocks in the center of St. Louis was bitterly fought by some sources -- particularly the St. Louis Post-Dispatch.
On September 10, 1935, the voters of St. Louis approved a $7.5 million bond issue to buy the property.
The buildings were bought for $7 million by the federal government via Eminent domain and was subject to considerable litigation but were ultimately bought at 131.99 percent of assessed valuation.
Roosevelt inspected the memorial area on October 14, 1936 during the dedication of the St. Louis Soldiers Memorial . Included in the party was then Senator Harry S. Truman.
The land was to be cleared by 1942. Among the buildings razed was the "Old Rock House" 1818 home of fur trader Manuel Lisa (now occupied by the stairs on the north side of the Arch) and the 1819 home of original St. Louis pioneer Jean Pierre Chouteau at First and Washington.
The architectural competition for a monument was delayed by World War II. Interest in the monument was fed after the war as it was to be the first big monument in the post-World War II era.
The estimated cost of the competition was $225,000 and Smith personally donated $40,000. Civic leaders held the nation-wide competition in 1947 to select a design for the main portion of the Memorial space.
Architect Eero Saarinen won this competition with plans for a 590-foot (180-metre) catenary arch to be placed on the banks of the Mississippi River. However, these plans were modified over the next 15 years, placing the arch on higher ground and adding 40 feet (12 m) in height and width.
The central architectural feature at the base of the arch is the Old Courthouse, which was once the tallest building in Missouri and has a dome similar to the United States Capitol and was placed on the building during the American Civil War at the same time as that on the U.S. Capitol.
Saarinen developed the shape with the help of architectural engineer Hannskarl Bandel. It is not a pure inverted catenary. Saarinen preferred a shape that was slightly elongated and thinner towards the top, a shape that produces a subtle soaring effect, and transfers more of the structure's weight downward rather than outward at the base.
When Saarinen won the competition, the official notification was sent to "E. Saarinen", thinking it to be the architect's father Eliel Saarinen, who had also submitted an entry. The family celebrated with a bottle of champagne, and two hours later an embarrassed official called to say the winner was, in fact, the younger Saarinen. The elder Saarinen then broke out a second bottle of champagne to celebrate his son's success.
Among the five finalists was local St. Louis architect Harris Armstrong.
Land for the memorial was formally dedicated on June 10, 1950 by Harry S. Truman. However the Korean War began and the project was put on hold.
On June 23, 1959, work begins on covering railroad tracks that cut across the memorial grounds.
On February 11, 1961 excavation began.
On September 1, 1961 Saarinen died.
On February 12, 1963 the first stainless steel triangle that forms the first section of the arch was set in place on the south leg.
On October 28, 1965 it was completed, costing approximately US$15 million to build. Along with all other historical areas of the National Park Service, the memorial was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. Vice President Hubert Humphrey and Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall dedicated the Arch on May 25, 1968.
In 1984, Congress authorized the enlargement of the Memorial to include up to 100 acres (0.4 km2) on the east bank of the Mississippi River in East St. Louis, Illinois. Funds were authorized to begin land acquisition, but Congress placed a moratorium upon NPS land acquisitions in fiscal year 1998. The moratorium continued into the 21st century, with expansion becoming less likely because of the construction of a riverboat gambling facility and related amenities.
During the Great Flood of 1993, Mississippi flood waters reached half way up the Grand Staircase on the east.
In 1999, the Arch tram queue areas were completely renovated at a cost of approximately $2.2 million.
In 1999 the Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site in St. Louis County, Missouri was brought under the Superintendent of the Memorial jurisdiction.
The arch was featured on the Missouri state quarter in 2003.
In 2007 St. Louis Mayor Francis Slay and former Missouri Senator John Danforth asked the National Park Service to create a more "active" use of the grounds of the memorial and model it on Millennium Park in Chicago including the possibility of an amphitheater, cafes and restaurants, fountains, bicycle rentals, sculptures and an aquarium. The National Park Service is currently cool to the plan noting that the only other overt development pressure on National Park property has been at the Jackson Hole Airport in Grand Teton National Park
The Memorial is separated from the rest of Downtown St. Louis by a sunken section of I-70. The city is considering a $90 million proposal to cover the interstate. The NPS, as part of their Centennial Initiative celebrating its 100th anniversary in 2016, is considering a plan to complete Saarinen's original master plan. The intention is to build the Gateway Arch Connector to link the Old Courthouse with the grounds of the Arch.
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