MO -- St. Louis -- Gateway Arch -- Museum of Westward Expansion -- Building the Arch:
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MWXARC_180918_006.JPG: The Gateway Arch
MWXARC_180918_011.JPG: The Gateway Arch
MWXARC_180918_019.JPG: The Gateway Arch
MWXARC_180918_024.JPG: The Gateway Arch
MWXARC_180918_033.JPG: October 28, 1965
The Final Section
MWXARC_180918_036.JPG: A Light Seen Throughout the Area
MWXARC_180918_041.JPG: There's a Time Capsule Welding Inside the Gateway Arch
MWXARC_180918_057.JPG: The Idea:
St. Louis lawyer Luther Ely Smith, appalled at the dilapidated St. Louis riverfront district, decided that a memorial to the westward expansion of the United States should be built here. St. Louis Mayor Bernard Dickmann liked Smith's idea and was able to persuade President Franklin D. Roosevelt to proclaim Jefferson national Expansion Memorial on December 21, 1935. Between 1939 and 1942, all the buildings in a 40 block area were torn down for the memorial. World War II brought the project to a halt, but in 1947-48 an architectural competition was held. A total of 172 entries were evaluated by a jury of seven architects who chose a beautiful stainless steel arch designed by Eero Saarinen.
Although Luther Ely Smith died in 1951, the campaign to build the memorial continued. Congresswoman Leonor K. Sullivan obtained much of the necessary funding from Congress. By 1957, Eero Saarinen began redesigning the Arch project. Backed by memorial Superintendent George Hartzog, Saarinen placed surface structures in an underground complex. Meanwhile, Mayor Raymond Tucker, a trained engineer, settled a dispute with the railroads over an unsightly riverfront trestle. Using Tucker's tunnel design, the great Arch was finally read to rise from the river.
MWXARC_180918_061.JPG: The Architect:
"To the question, what is the purpose of the architecture, I would answer: To shelter and enhance man's life on earth and to fulfill his belief in the nobility of existence."
-- Eero Saarinen, December 1, 1959
Eero Saarinen was born August 20, 1910, in Helsinki, Finland. He remembered that "it never occurred to me to do anything but follow in my father's footsteps and become an architect." Eero's father, Eliel, brought the family to the United States in 1924 and became the first President of the Cranbrook Institute in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. Saarinen studied at Cranbrook and the Yale School of Architecture, later taking a leading role in his father's architectural firm.
The Jefferson National Expansion competition in 1947-48 gave Eero a start on a solo career at age 38. Saarinen went on to design the General Motors Technical Center in Warren, Michigan (1948-56), the TWA terminal at Kennedy Airport in New York (1958-62), the John Deere Headquarters in Moline, Illinois (1957-63), the US Chancellery Building in London, England (1955-60), and Dulles Airport outside Washington DC (1958-62), among many other brilliant works. Saarinen was putting the finishing touches on the Arch project when he died of cancer on September 1, 1961.
MWXARC_180918_063.JPG: Eero Saarinen
MWXARC_180918_066.JPG: The Realization:
The Gateway Arch was a deceptively simple design which later presented several difficult problems. As Eero Saarinen readied the Arch project, he had to settle on a shape and height appropriate to the memorial site and its surroundings. After long months of trial and error, a weighted catenary curve was chosen. The Arch would stand 630 feet tall, its triangular stainless steel sections tapering from 54 feet on each side of the base to 17 feet at the top. Saarinen's design could not have been built without the theoretical mathematics of engineer Hannskarl Bandel. Meanwhile, Saarinen worked with landscape architect Dan Kiley to create the graceful curves of the shaded walks and grounds with trees, meadows and ponds.
Since conventional elevators could not negotiate the curves of the Arch to the observation platform at the top, inventor Richard Bowser was asked to create the unique Arch Transportation System. Just as most of the design problems were solved, Eero Saarinen died suddenly at age 51, his partner John Dinkeloo oversaw construction. St. Louis contractor Robert MacDonald won the bid to build the Arch, and PIttsburgh-Des Moines Steel was hired to erect it. The Arch was completed on October 28, 1965, a tribute to the many people who made the dream a reality.
MWXARC_180918_100.JPG: 1998 Dean + Jay Tschetter
MWXARC_180918_130.JPG: The Work of One Architect Rises Above the Rest
MWXARC_180918_134.JPG: A St. Louis Artist Depicts the Gritty Riverfront
MWXARC_180918_136.JPG: Luther Ely Smith and Bernard Dickmann
MWXARC_180918_139.JPG: Could a National Memorial Solve a Local Problem?
MWXARC_180918_142.JPG: Civic Leaders Made It Happen
MWXARC_180918_145.JPG: Aerial View of the St. Louis Riverfront, c. 1933 and c. 1942
MWXARC_180918_149.JPG: The 1947-1948 Architectural Competition
MWXARC_180918_158.JPG: Masters of Modern Design Competed to Create the Memorial
MWXARC_180918_161.JPG: Specific rules for an exciting competition
MWXARC_180918_164.JPG: Specific rules for an exciting competition
MWXARC_180918_167.JPG: General information about the Memorial
MWXARC_180918_175.JPG: Rules governing the competition
MWXARC_180918_181.JPG: Requirements of the program
MWXARC_180918_194.JPG: The Requirements
MWXARC_180918_199.JPG: Requirements of the drawings for the First Stage
MWXARC_180918_211.JPG: Harris Armstrong was an architect active in the St. Louis area. His best-known buildings are the Ethical Society and the Magic Chef Building. Armstrong was a runner-up in the 1947 competition.
MWXARC_180918_220.JPG: William N. Berger, Caleb Hornbostel, and George Sherman Lewis were three east coast architects who won third prize in the competition. All three went on to distinguished careers as architects.
MWXARC_180918_226.JPG: William Eng was a student at the University of Illinois School of Architecture when he entered the 1947-1948 competition with two fellow students. His design received second prize in the JNEM competition.
MWXARC_180918_233.JPG: Cleveland native T. Marshall Rainey later worked on plans for a waterfront highway in Cincinnati and as a design critic at the University of Cincinnati. Rainey's design was a runner-up in the competition.
MWXARC_180918_237.JPG: Eero Saarinen teamed with landscape architect Dan Kiley, designer Alexander Girard, illustrator J. Barr and sculptor Lily Saarinen to win first prize in the competition.
MWXARC_180918_240.JPG: Masters of Modern Design Competed to Create the Memorial
MWXARC_180918_241.JPG: William Eng
A Student's entry took second place
MWXARC_180918_244.JPG: Dulles International Airport, Chantilly, Virginia (1958-1962)
MWXARC_180918_246.JPG: Trans World Airlines Terminal, Idlewild (now JFK) Airport, New York (1956-1962)
MWXARC_180918_250.JPG: David S. Ignalls, Hockey Rink, Yale University (1956-59)
MWXARC_180918_254.JPG: Architect Eero Saarinen Reshaped the Field of Architecture with his Daring Designs
MWXARC_180918_260.JPG: Arch Model
MWXARC_180918_282.JPG: Architectural Model of the Arch and Grounds, 1948
MWXARC_180918_285.JPG: The Gleaming Arch Soared Above a Brilliant Landscape Design
MWXARC_180918_292.JPG: Saarinen's Tour
This is a tactile scale replica of the 1948 model of Eero Saarinen's winning design. Lift the wand to activate an audio tour of an actor reading Saarinen's own words describing a walk through the memorial. Puffs of air will guide your hand to each area of the model being described.
MWXARC_180918_293.JPG: Leonor K. Sullivan
A creative young congresswoman lobbied hard for the Gateway Arch
MWXARC_180918_300.JPG: Lilian Swann Saarinen
A gifted sculptor helped shape a winning proposal
MWXARC_180918_303.JPG: Why Does Eero Saarinen Design Look Unique?
MWXARC_180918_314.JPG: What Was it Like to Work the Eero Saarinen?
MWXARC_180918_321.JPG: It Took a Team to Realize Saarinen's Vision
MWXARC_180918_327.JPG: Dick Bowser
MWXARC_180918_338.JPG: How is an Arch like a Chain?
MWXARC_180918_341.JPG: Bill Quigley, Operator of the North Creeper Derrick
MWXARC_180918_344.JPG: Fred Morris: Interiors and Heights
MWXARC_180918_383.JPG: Don White
"We want to work, and ... work's available... in high iron."
MWXARC_180918_386.JPG: Fighting Racism, Local ACTION Opened Jobs for Everyone
AAA "Gem": AAA considers this location to be a "must see" point of interest. To see pictures of other areas that AAA considers to be Gems, click here.
Wikipedia Description: Jefferson National Expansion Memorial
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Jefferson National Expansion Memorial is located in St. Louis, Missouri near the starting point of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. It was designated as a National Memorial by Executive Order 7523, on December 21, 1935, and is maintained by the National Park Service (NPS).
The park was established to commemorate several historical events:
* the Louisiana Purchase, and the subsequent westward movement of American explorers and pioneers;
* the first civil government west of the Mississippi River;
* the debate over slavery raised by the Dred Scott case.
The memorial site consists of a 91 acres (37 ha) park along the Mississippi River on the site of the original city of St. Louis; the Old Courthouse, a former state and federal courthouse which saw the origins of the Dred Scott case; the 4,200 m2 (45,000 sq ft) Museum of Westward Expansion; and most notably, the Gateway Arch, an inverted steel catenary arch that has become the definitive icon of the city.
Today, the park is host to four million visitors each year, three quarters of whom enter the Arch or the Old Courthouse.
The Gateway Arch:
Main article: Gateway Arch
The Gateway Arch is known as the "Gateway to the West". It was designed by Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen and structural engineer Hannskarl Bandel in 1947 and built between 1963 and 1968. It is the only building in the world based on the catenary arch, making it the iconic image of the city. It stands 192.024 meters (630 ft) tall and 192.024 meters (630 ft) wide at its base. The legs are 16.46 meters (54 ft) wide at the base, narrowing to 5.18 meters (17 ft) at the arch. There is a unique tram system to carry passengers to the observation room at the top of the arch.
Main article: Old Courthouse
The Old Courthouse is built on land originally deeded by St. Louis founder Auguste Chouteau. It marks the location over which the arch reaches. Its dome was built during the American Civil War and is similar to the dome on the United States Capitol which was also built during the Civil War. It was the site of the local trials in the Dred Scott case.
The courthouse is the only portion of the memorial west of I-70. To the west of the Courthouse is a Greenway between Market and Chestnut Streets which is only interrupted by the Civil Courts Building which features a pyramid model of the Mausoleum of Maussollos (which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World) on its roof. When Civil Courts building was built in the 1920s the Chouteau family sued to regain the property belonging the Old Courthouse because it had been deeded in perpetuity to be a courthouse.
Museum of Westward Expansion:
Underneath the Arch is a visitor center, entered from a descending outdoor ramp starting at either base. Within the center is the Museum of Westward Expansion, exhibits on the history of the St. Louis riverfront, and tram loading and unloading areas. Tucker Theater, finished in 1968 and renovated 30 years later, has about 285 seats and shows a documentary (Monument to the Dream) on the Arch's construction. Odyssey Theater, designed by Cox/Croslin Architects was completed in 1993 and has 255 seats. It was the first 70 mm film theater to be located on National Park Service grounds and operated by the NPS. The theater runs films from a rotating play list. Also located in the visitor center are retail operations run by the Jefferson National Parks Association, a not-for-profit partner.
The memorial was developed largely through the efforts of St. Louis civic booster Luther Ely Smith who first pitched the idea in 1933, was the long-term chairman of the committee that selected the area and persuaded Franklin Roosevelt in 1935 to make it a national park after St. Louis passed a bond issue to begin building it, and who partially financed the 1947 architectural contest that selected the Arch.
In the early 1930s the United States began looking for a suitable memorial for Thomas Jefferson (the Washington Monument and the newly built Lincoln Memorial were the only large Presidential memorials at the time).
Shortly after Thanksgiving in 1933 Smith who had been on the commission to build the George Rogers Clark National Historical Park in Indiana, was returning via train when he noticed the poor condition or the original platted location of St. Louis along the Mississippi. He thought that the memorial to Jefferson should be on the actual location that was symbolic of one of Jefferson's greatest triumphs -- the Louisiana Purchase.
The originally platted area of St. Louis included:
* Site of the Spanish capital of Louisiana (New Spain) (basically the entire Louisiana Purchase area north of Louisiana from the city's founding in 1764 until it was turned .
* Site of the Battle of Saint Louis, the only battle west of the Mississippi River in the American Revolutionary War
* Site of the Three Flags Day ceremony in 1804 in which Spain turned over Louisiana to France for less than 24 hour before it was turned over to the United States clearing the way for Lewis and Clark to legally begin their exploration (which Spain had specifically prohibited)
* Site of the first capital of Upper Louisiana for the United States
Almost all of the historic buildings associated with this period had been replaced by newer buildings. His idea was to raze all of the buildings in the original St. Louis platted area and replace it with a park with "a central feature, a shaft, a building, an arch, or something which would symbolize American culture and civilization."
Smith pitched the idea to Bernard Dickmann who quickly assembled a meeting of St. Louis civic leaders on December 15, 1933 at the Jefferson Hotel and they endorsed the plan and Smith became chairman of what would become the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Association (a position he would hold until 1949 with a one-year exception).
The Commission then defined the area, got cost estimates of $30 million to buy the land, clear the buildings and erect a park and monument. With promises from the federal government (via the United States Territorial Expansion Memorial Commission) to join if the City of St. Louis could raise money.
The area to be included in the park was the Eads Bridge/Washington Avenue on the north and Poplar Street on the south, the Mississippi River on the east Third Street (now I-70) on the west plus the Old Courthouse just west of Third Street (the Courthouse was actually added in 1940).
The only building in this area not included was the Old Cathedral, which is on the site of St. Louis first church and was opposite the home of St. Louis founder Auguste Chouteau. The founders of the city were buried in its graveyard (but were moved in 1849 to Bellefontaine Cemetery during a cholera outbreak).
Taking away 40 blocks in the center of St. Louis was bitterly fought by some sources -- particularly the St. Louis Post-Dispatch.
On September 10, 1935, the voters of St. Louis approved a $7.5 million bond issue to buy the property.
The buildings were bought for $7 million by the federal government via Eminent domain and was subject to considerable litigation but were ultimately bought at 131.99 percent of assessed valuation.
Roosevelt inspected the memorial area on October 14, 1936 during the dedication of the St. Louis Soldiers Memorial . Included in the party was then Senator Harry S. Truman.
The land was to be cleared by 1942. Among the buildings razed was the "Old Rock House" 1818 home of fur trader Manuel Lisa (now occupied by the stairs on the north side of the Arch) and the 1819 home of original St. Louis pioneer Jean Pierre Chouteau at First and Washington.
The architectural competition for a monument was delayed by World War II. Interest in the monument was fed after the war as it was to be the first big monument in the post-World War II era.
The estimated cost of the competition was $225,000 and Smith personally donated $40,000. Civic leaders held the nation-wide competition in 1947 to select a design for the main portion of the Memorial space.
Architect Eero Saarinen won this competition with plans for a 590-foot (180-metre) catenary arch to be placed on the banks of the Mississippi River. However, these plans were modified over the next 15 years, placing the arch on higher ground and adding 40 feet (12 m) in height and width.
The central architectural feature at the base of the arch is the Old Courthouse, which was once the tallest building in Missouri and has a dome similar to the United States Capitol and was placed on the building during the American Civil War at the same time as that on the U.S. Capitol.
Saarinen developed the shape with the help of architectural engineer Hannskarl Bandel. It is not a pure inverted catenary. Saarinen preferred a shape that was slightly elongated and thinner towards the top, a shape that produces a subtle soaring effect, and transfers more of the structure's weight downward rather than outward at the base.
When Saarinen won the competition, the official notification was sent to "E. Saarinen", thinking it to be the architect's father Eliel Saarinen, who had also submitted an entry. The family celebrated with a bottle of champagne, and two hours later an embarrassed official called to say the winner was, in fact, the younger Saarinen. The elder Saarinen then broke out a second bottle of champagne to celebrate his son's success.
Among the five finalists was local St. Louis architect Harris Armstrong.
Land for the memorial was formally dedicated on June 10, 1950 by Harry S. Truman. However the Korean War began and the project was put on hold.
On June 23, 1959, work begins on covering railroad tracks that cut across the memorial grounds.
On February 11, 1961 excavation began.
On September 1, 1961 Saarinen died.
On February 12, 1963 the first stainless steel triangle that forms the first section of the arch was set in place on the south leg.
On October 28, 1965 it was completed, costing approximately US$15 million to build. Along with all other historical areas of the National Park Service, the memorial was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. Vice President Hubert Humphrey and Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall dedicated the Arch on May 25, 1968.
In 1984, Congress authorized the enlargement of the Memorial to include up to 100 acres (0.4 km2) on the east bank of the Mississippi River in East St. Louis, Illinois. Funds were authorized to begin land acquisition, but Congress placed a moratorium upon NPS land acquisitions in fiscal year 1998. The moratorium continued into the 21st century, with expansion becoming less likely because of the construction of a riverboat gambling facility and related amenities.
During the Great Flood of 1993, Mississippi flood waters reached half way up the Grand Staircase on the east.
In 1999, the Arch tram queue areas were completely renovated at a cost of approximately $2.2 million.
In 1999 the Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site in St. Louis County, Missouri was brought under the Superintendent of the Memorial jurisdiction.
The arch was featured on the Missouri state quarter in 2003.
In 2007 St. Louis Mayor Francis Slay and former Missouri Senator John Danforth asked the National Park Service to create a more "active" use of the grounds of the memorial and model it on Millennium Park in Chicago including the possibility of an amphitheater, cafes and restaurants, fountains, bicycle rentals, sculptures and an aquarium. The National Park Service is currently cool to the plan noting that the only other overt development pressure on National Park property has been at the Jackson Hole Airport in Grand Teton National Park
The Memorial is separated from the rest of Downtown St. Louis by a sunken section of I-70. The city is considering a $90 million proposal to cover the interstate. The NPS, as part of their Centennial Initiative celebrating its 100th anniversary in 2016, is considering a plan to complete Saarinen's original master plan. The intention is to build the Gateway Arch Connector to link the Old Courthouse with the grounds of the Arch.
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