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Description of Pictures: A wreath was out for the anniversary of the Battle of Midway.
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Description of Subject Matter: The Navy Memorial is located across from the National Archives building on Pennsylvania Avenue. It includes of a museum, the Lone Sailor statue (a sailor waiting by the docks for his family), and variety of plaques depicting famous scenes from the Navy's history. The second part of the Lone Sailor statue -- the sailor reunited with his wife and kid -- is in the Naval Heritage Center building itself.
History of Memorial
Excerpted from the book From The Sea:
For America’s sea services, the United States Navy Memorial is the triumph of a centuries-old dream. In the early days of America’s national independence, architect Pierre L'Enfant envisioned a memorial in the Nation’s Capital “to celebrate the first rise of the Navy and consecrate its progress and achievements." But it was only in the twentieth century that L’Enfant’s vision of a Navy Memorial in Washington, D.C. was realized.
Pennsylvania Avenue, “America’s Main Street,” the boulevard that links the U.S. Capitol and White House, the scene of so many parades, pageants, and national memories, was chosen to be the location.
After President John F. Kennedy – himself a Navy war hero – inspired the redevelopment of Pennsylvania Avenue, another Navy war hero, Admiral Arleigh Burke, proclaimed in 1977 that “we have talked long enough about a Navy Memorial and it's time we did something about it." Burke and several Navy colleagues got busy: They founded a non-profit organization, the United States Navy Memorial.
In 1980, under the Presidency of Rear Admiral William Thompson, USN (Ret.), the United States Navy Memorial sought and received the blessing of Congress to construct a Navy Memorial on public land in the District of Columbia. Working with the Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation, the Foundation selected Market Square, across the street from the National Archives, as the Navy Memorial’s site.
Construction began in December 1985, and the Memorial was dedicated two years later on October 13, 1987, the 212th birthday of the United States Navy. “The Navy Memorial is new,” said Admiral Thompson, “but it is rich in tradition and heritage that parallel the history of the Navy and the history of the United States.”
The southern hemisphere of the Navy Memorial's 100-foot diameter granite map of the world is framed by 26 bronze reliefs. Set in deep relief, these lustrous 32-inch by 36-inch panels commemorate events in naval history or honor communities of the naval service past and present.
West Sculpture Wall
1. Navy Explosive Ordnance Disposal
2. Naval Construction Battalions
3. The Navy Family
4. Navy Supply Corps
5. Navy Chaplains
6. Admiral Farragut
7. Naval Aviation
8. Inland Engagements
9. The Silent Service
10. Naval Airships
11. Navy Medicine
12. Naval Reservist
13. Navy SEALS
East Sculpture Wall
14. Engineering Duty Officers
15. Women in the Navy
16. Great White Fleet
17. Navy Astronauts
18. US Marine Corps
19. US Coast Guard
21. Merchant Marine
22. US Naval Academy
23. Destroyer Escorts
24. Opening Japan
25. John Paul Jones
26. Landing Ship Tank
The Navy Memorial appointed a multi-talented artist, art historian and educator, Leo C. Irrera, of Washington, D.C., to undertake the massive challenge of overall design concept, creative development, and coordination with sculptors, foundries and local agencies with approval authority. Mr. Irrera personally sculpted six of the bronze reliefs.
Mounted on twin granite sculpture walls facing Pennsylvania Avenue, the bronze reliefs eloquently affirm the heritage and educational focus of the Memorial. Art authorities have told the Navy Memorial Foundation that this may be the largest bronze relief program ever attempted in American art.
From its inception, it was decided that the sculpture wall of the Navy Memorial would manifest the Navy through depictions of historic naval events and recognition of its various components. This was one consideration; another consideration was the audience‹its make-up and its interests.
The unique location of the memorial, guarantees an audience of considerable size‹local residents and tourists. Some would know a great deal about the U. S. Navy; most would know very little. Some would be sticklers for details; others would just want a good show‹perhaps especially children (for whose benefit the sculptures are set on their granite walls close to the ground). There was, however, no guarantee that if indeed the audience looked, it would keep looking. So the overriding objective in the creation of the 26 bronze reliefs was to present a show that would hold the viewer without sacrificing the initial concept.
The president and board of directors of the Navy Memorial Foundation chose the components to be represented‹the objective being to represent the Navy as more than “warships at sea.” Due to the limitation of 26 spaces, many important naval components and events had to be omitted, so the most difficult task up front was the selection of 26 scenes that would best present a comprehensive picture of U. S. Navy people.
1. U.S. Navy Explosive Ordnance Disposal - (EOD)
The people of the Explosive Ordnance Disposal community are responsible for location, identification and rendering safe retrieval and disposal of all types of munitions from cannon balls to fusion devices including chemical and biological weapons.
Only the U.S. Navy EOD Force has the know-how to undertake the broad spectrum of threats in all conditions worldwide.
2. Naval Construction Battalions—Construtmus Batuimus— "We build, we fight."
Authorized on January 5, 1942, and officially established and named on March 5, 1942, the Navy's construction battalions—the world-renowned Seabees—have distinguished themselves in a half century of service in construction and combat.
In World War II, the Seabees constructed more than 400 advance bases, some accommodating 50,000 men, and housing facilities for 1.5-million personnel. They built air bases, shipyards, port and harbor works, training facilities, ammunition plants, fuel depots, floating and graving docks of all sizes. They accomplished this Herculean task often under hostile fire. Under the leadership of Civil Engineer Corps officers, more than 150 battalions were formed during the war, with a peak strength of a quarter-million men.
The Seabees have distinguished themselves through their critical role in Korea, Vietnam and, most recently, during DESERT STORM in the Persian Gulf. Seabees continue to play an important role today in the U.S. Navy as builders, engineers and humanitarians under their motto, “Seabees Can Do!” The commissioned officers of the Civil Engineer Corps are the engineers and architects who manage the Navy's shore facilities and who oversee the construction and maintenance of the shore establishment. In addition, they command the field forces that construct advance bases for support of Marine and Navy operations around the world.
Relief sponsored by past and present Seabees, officers of the Navy Civil Engineering Corps, and organizations such as the Seabee Memorial Scholarship Foundation. The sculptor for the relief, Leo C. Irrera, served in the Seabees in World War II.
4. U.S. Navy Supply Corps - "Service to the Fleet"
Founded in 1795, the Supply Corps provides responsible stewardship of the Navy's material resources, managing and guarding a supply pipeline that stretches from industrial America to storerooms and ships at sea. The bronze relief shows a replenishment at sea by a new addition to the Navy support system, USS SUPPLY (AOE-6), resupplying one of the newest class of Navy destroyers, USS ARLEIGH BURKE (DDG-51).
Logistic support of the operating forces of the Navy‹that has been the fundamental job of the Navy's Supply Corps since 1795, when this branch of the Navy was formed to support six wooden frigates. And while almost everything else has changed in almost two centuries, the fundamental mission of this important Navy community has not.
Throughout their illustrious history, the officers of the Supply Corps have kept pace with the expanding needs of the modern Navy and the scope of its mission. Supplying the Navy with over 2 million different items essential to the operation of modern ships, missiles, aircraft and facilities, this now specialized and highly professional community has been eminently successful in meeting the challenges of a wide range of management disciplines.
The broad responsibilities of the corps are closely related to those of many executive positions in private industry such as financial management, inventory control, merchandising, transportation, procurement, data processing, and personal services including paying and feeding personnel, and operating the Navy Exchanges and commissary stores.
The bronze relief is sponsored by the Supply Corps Association and its many friends and supporters. Sculptor: Gilbert A. Franklin.
5. Navy Chaplains - "Eternal Father Strong to Save"
For more than 200 years Navy Chaplains have worked to meet the diverse spiritual needs of the men and women of the Navy, Marine Corps and Merchant Marine. The Chaplains Corps was founded on 28 November 1775, the date on which the Continental Congress adopted the second Article of Navy Regulations stating "The commanders of ships of the Thirteen United Colonies are to take care ...that Divine Services are performed..." Since the nation's inception, clergy from the religious bodies of America have provided ministry to Navy people and their families. The Chaplains Corps motto "Cooperation without Compromise" is exemplified in the daily lives of chaplains, representing the myriad of faith groups, who work together administering to the members of the sea services and their families -- who themselves represent the spectrum of religious beliefs in our country.
Navy chaplains serve all three services‹the Navy, the Marine Corps, and the Coast Guard. They go where their people go and share their joys, hardships and dangers. The chaplain's presence takes many forms‹preacher, teacher, celebrant, counselor, confessor, friend to those in need. Above all, ashore or afloat, at home or abroad, in peace or war, the chaplain's presence bears witness to Almighty God, to the faith traditions of our nation, and to the abiding nature of life's moral, spiritual and religious foundations.
As leaders in the Navy, chaplains have initiated and supported a wide range of programs to better the quality of life of the individual sailor, marine, and their loved ones. Chaplains' spiritual ministry extends to family support programs, educational and counseling activities, and health and welfare concerns. Over the years, Navy chaplains have forged a proud tradition of faithfulness to God, to shipmates and their families, to the naval service, to our great nation and to each other. This legacy continues. Sponsored by Navy Chaplains and Navy Religious Program Specialists and parishioners. Sculptor: Klara Sever.
6. Admiral David Glasgow Farragut
This famed American naval officer, who led the Union assaults on New Orleans and Mobile Bay during the Civil War, was the first United States naval leader to be advanced to the rank of Admiral. He also was among the first truly American heroes of Hispanic descent. Admiral Farragut was born July 5, 1801 near Knoxville, Tennessee, the son of a Spanish father, George Farragut, and a North Carolinian mother, Elizabeth Shine. Young David Farragut went to sea at age 8, and earned an appointment as midshipman in the United States Navy at 9 . He first saw naval combat during the War of 1812 and also took his first command when he was made prize master of a captured British ship, the BARCLAY. He was 12 years old.
Admiral Farragut's place in naval history became assured in August 1864 at the Battle of Mobile Bay. Leading the attack on this Confederate resupply port, Farragut lashed himself to the maintop of his flagship, the HARTFORD, so that he could better direct the battle. Maneuvering his fleet of ships through a field of mines‹called "torpedoes" then‹he pressed the attack upon the defending forts, ordering "Damn the torpedoes! Four bells! Captain Drayton, go ahead! Jouett, full speed!"
Beyond the drama of these words and the circumstances in which they were uttered, Farragut's victory in the Battle of Mobile Bay is more significant for its strategic impact on the course of the Civil War. By closing the South's last port open to world commerce, Farragut cut off the sources of war supplies that would otherwise have flowed unimpeded in the Confederacy's overland supply routes to battlegrounds. It became another classic case of control of the sea‹a lesson learned from ancient times to the present. Farragut, a man who once said that ``the best defense is well directed fire from your own guns," learned and taught the lesson well.
A grateful nation honored the hero of Mobile Bay with the rank of four-star admiral, and some even suggested he seek the nomination for President, an accolade he declined. Sculptor: Robert Summers.
7. Naval Aviation
As the Twentieth Century dawned, not long after an Army-Navy board undertook a study of ``flying machines" and envisioned their potential for use in warfare, Naval Aviation was born.
The first officer selected for flight training was Lieutenant T. G. Ellyson, who received orders in December 1910 to undergo instruction with Glenn Curtiss, producer of the first practical hydroplane. A month earlier, another Curtiss pilot, Eugene Ely, was the first to take off from the deck of a ship, proving that aircraft could fly from ships. In November 1910, he took off from a temporary platform built on the bow of the cruiser USS BIRMINGHAM, then in Hampton Roads, Virginia. Ely intended to take off while the ship was underway, but a bank of fog kept the cruiser at anchor; Ely took off anyway, as depicted in the Naval Aviation bronze relief. On a subsequent trial in January 1911, he successfully landed and took off from the battleship USS PENNSYLVANIA anchored in San Francisco Bay in what could be considered the first carrier operation. Six months later, the Navy received its first airplanes, and a year after that, Lieutenant Ellyson demonstrated the feasibility of catapult launching of aircraft from ships. Naval Aviation was on its way into the history books.
The Navy has taken different approaches to integrating aeronautics with the fleet‹from yesteryears' flying boats and pontoon aircraft for non-carrier ships and lighter-than-air craft to today's full spectrum of carrier and land-based aircraft. Naval aviators today can pursue or support almost every possible mission faced by naval forces. Fighter planes, bombers and attack aircraft, patrol and electronic warfare aircraft, antisubmarine aircraft, cargo planes, search and rescue aircraft, helicopters‹all of these comprise the Naval Aviation front line, a versatile and powerful extension of the sea-based aircraft carriers and battle groups that are at the heart of the U. S. Navy's effectiveness as an instrument of national policy.
The Naval Aviation bronze relief is sponsored by the Association of Naval Aviation. Sculptor: Giancarlo Biagi.
8. Inland Engagements - U. S. Navy River Operations - Vietnam
Not always on the open seas, naval operations have been carried out on waters such as the Great Lakes, the rivers of the Civil War and most recently the rivers of Vietnam. During the latter conflict, Navy and Army units formed the Riverine Forces, while Swift boats operated off shore as well as on the rivers. Swift Boat PCF-35, which can been seen in the distance in this bronze relief, was commanded by Lieutenant Junior Grade Elmo Zumwalt III, son of the U.S. Navy Commander in Vietnam (and later to become Chief of Naval Operations), ADM Elmo Zumwalt, Jr. At the age of 39, the younger Zumwalt died of cancer believed to have been caused by Agent Orange, a defoliant used by the U. S. Armed Forces in Vietnam.
The Navy's inland war in Vietnam was part of a larger war effort in Southeast Asia involving nearly every aspect of naval operations. Other naval forces ``in country" included U. S. Marines based ashore and with the Seventh Fleet Amphibious Force, the Coast Guard, the Seabees, Navy headquarters and other combat and logistic support activities. Off shore the Navy operated carrier-based aircraft in strikes in North and South Vietnam, patrol aircraft, surface combatants including the battleship USS New Jersey providing shore bombardment and naval gunfire support for amphibious operations, logistic support forces‹providing supplies, fuel and medical care.
Sculptor: Serena Goldstein Litofsky
9. The Silent Service
A World War II submarine returns to Pearl Harbor displaying a “broom,” signifying a clean sweep of enemy ships from the seas. Some 288 American submarines accounted for the sinking of nearly 5-million tons of merchant shipping, plus 276 warships including a battleship and eight carriers. The U.S. Navy lost 50 submarines in WWII action. Sculptor: Stanley Bleifeld. Sponsored by the U.S. Submarine Veterans of World War II.
10. Naval Airships
"They were dependable." In the matter of manned flight under power, the airship precedes the fixed wing aircraft by a half century. After the first flight of a balloon with a steam engine (in France in 1852) and since World War I, the Navy's interest in rigid and non-rigid airships was for their value in scouting, anti-submarine patrol and airborne early warning. Following World War I, the Navy continued development and operation of rigid airships, notably the Shenandoah, the first helium-filled rigid airship, and the Los Angeles, Macon, and Akron. All except Los Angeles came to violent ends through crashes in storms‹ ending the Navy's interest in rigid airships before the beginning of World War II. But the non-rigid airship, or blimp, came into its own in the Navy during World War II, when blimps escorted 90,000 surface ships, without a single vessel lost by submarine attack‹and without a loss of their own in their first two years of combat.
More than 150 blimps served in the war. The workhorse was the K-type, 253 feet long. They operated along both coasts, in the Gulf of Mexico, as far south as Brazil, and in 1944 out of Morocco over the Strait of Gibraltar, and from France and Italy.
Their wartime mission was threefold‹anti-submarine warfare, anti-mine warfare and search and rescue. It has been said that if airships had served no other function in the war, their record of locating and rescuing shipwrecked and airwrecked crews merits them national gratitude.
The Navy's airship program continued after World War II until 1961, when the Navy retired its last active airships, presumably to be replaced by land and sea-based helicopters. Yet while the airships served, ``they were dependable."
Sculptor: Miklos Simon. Sponsored by the Naval Airships Association.
11. Navy Medicine
"Standing by to assist". Pictured are a Navy doctor and Navy nurse attending a patient brought by a medevac helicopter. Two Navy Hospital Corpsmen ready an I.V. while two others watch the helicopter depart. The action occurs on a Navy hospital ship during Korean conflict.
In 1775, the first American naval surgeon, Joseph Harrison, was aboard Alfred when John Paul Jones hoisted the first American flag to fly from a warship.
Today, ``Navy Medicine" encompasses a community of 51,000 Navy medical personnel, including 43,000 uniformed care-givers‹nearly 4,000 medical corps, 3,000 nurse corps, 2,600 medical service corps, 1,500 dental corps, 27,000 hospital corpsmen and 3,500 dental technicians. These dedicated, highly skilled professionals provide care for nearly 786,000 active duty Navy and Marine Corps personnel, 886,000 dependents and Navy and Marine Corps retirees and their dependents or survivors numbering 1,126,600‹a total beneficiary population of almost 3,000,000 people.
Navy Medicine operates 33 hospitals, 213 medical clinics, 168 dental clinics and five drug screening laboratories. In addition, the community includes a research and development command, which includes medical and dental health research institutes, units and laboratories. The community has its own health sciences education and training command which operates four schools.
In war and peace, Navy Medicine has compiled a glorious record of achievements. During the twentieth century, 27 members of the community have been honored for their heroism by the award of the Medal of Honor. Thousands more have been honored by their medical peers for extraordinary achievements in medical research and medical care, in the detection, treatment and prevention of disease, in extending the frontiers of outer space and the inner space of ocean depths, in improving occupational and environmental safety for naval personnel, and in enhancing combat readiness of the Navy.
Sculptor: Antonio Tobias Mendez. Sponsored by members of the Navy Medical Family. In addition, the American Medical Association, the American Hospital Association, Hoechst-Roussel Pharmaceuticals, and Glaxo, Inc. contributed to the Navy Memorial Foundation toward completion of this bronze-relief.
12. Naval Reservists
"Twice a Citizen". The U.S. Naval Reserve was not formally established until March 3, 1915, but the concept of citizen sailors is as old as our nation. Privateers, naval militia and naval reservists‹by whatever names‹have faithfully served and continue to serve our nation with honor, pride and distinction during peace and war. By the end of World War I, there were 330,000 Naval Reserve personnel on active duty. By the end of World War II, over three fourths of the 3,220,000 persons on active duty in the Navy were members of the Naval Reserve.
The primary mission of the Naval Reserve is to provide trained units and individuals available for active duty in time of war or national emergency or to supplement the peacetime needs of the active forces. The ``total force" of the Navy embraces all of its assets‹people and hardware. As a result, Naval Reserve strength is directly related to the inventory of ships, aircraft and support equipment. Wherever they may be, drilling at Reserve Centers all over the country or on active duty for training on the high seas, Naval Reservists are full partners with the active Navy.
In their civilian roles, out of uniform, Reservists fulfill their life's work in the mainstreams of America's economy and society. But they are always ready, as depicted in sculptor Leo Irrera's bronze relief, to leave the civilian world behind and don the uniforms, obligations and sacrifices of active service in the Navy. In this regard they are, in all respects, "twice a citizen." Sponsored the Naval Reserve Association with assistance from the Naval Enlisted Reserve Association.
13. Naval Special Warfare - "Failure is Not an Option"
Sculptor: Leo C. Irrera
14. Engineering Duty Officers - "Sharpening the Point of the Spear"
Sculptor: Antonio Tobias Mendez
15. Women in the Navy
A tribute to Navy women. They began their service in the Navy as nurses in 1908, adding new chapters as the Yeoman (F) of World War I, the WAVES of World War II, and today's Women in the Navy who serve their country as part of the Navy team‹on shore, in the air, and on ships at sea.
It was in World War I that women's role in the Navy first came into its own‹while leaving a long way to go. The Navy Nurse Corps was born in 1908, and, in addition to the nurses, some 12,000 women served on active duty as ``yeomanettes." They were the answer to Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels' question, ``Is there any law that says a yeoman has to be a man?" Ever since, in a long and glorious saga of service, women of the Navy have been building traditions of excellence while tearing down antiquated traditions about their place in and the role of women in the military.
In July 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the legislation authorizing the enlistment and commissioning of women in the Naval Reserve‹the first time women were allowed to be part of the armed services instead of an auxiliary to a service branch. Thus was born the WAVES‹Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service. More progress was to be made during and following World War II, when women‹previously confined to reserve status‹were at last permitted to become a part of the Regular Navy. In the next four decades, women's opportunities continued to expand, including assignments to and command of ships and squadrons of the Navy‹and promotion to flag rank in the unrestricted line officer corps.
Women in the Navy today serve side by side their male counterparts in almost every aspect of naval service, as depicted by Sculptor Serena Goldstein Litofsky's bronze relief. This work was sponsored by the Navy Women National Convention Association and the Women Officer's Professional Association. This sculpture was the first of the 22 panels on the sculpture wall to be fully sponsored
16. The Great White Fleet - 1907
"Speak softly and carry a big stick." Fresh on the heels of mediating the peace talks in the Russo-Japanese War and becoming the first American to win the Nobel Peace Prize, President Theodore Roosevelt decided to display to the world America's newly acquired naval power. He sent the entire U.S. Navy Battle Fleet on a good-will tour around the world‹16 battleships, brightly painted in white, plus auxiliaries and coal ships.
As shown in the bronze relief, when the Great White Fleet sailed from Hampton Roads, Virginia, on December 16, 1907, Roosevelt reviewed the departure from the presidential yacht Mayflower. The fleet was at sea for 14 months and steamed 46,000 miles, the longest voyage yet for the relatively new technology of steam-powered steel battleships. The fleet returned to Hampton Roads on February 22, 1909.
Commenting on his "big stick" diplomacy, Roosevelt declared that it "was the most important service (he) rendered to peace." Sculptor: Gilbert A. Franklin. Sponsored by the Naval Order of the United States.
17. Navy Astronauts and Recovery Missions - A contribution to U.S. Space Age
The first American in outer space (May 1961) was a naval aviator and astronaut, Alan B. Shepard, Jr., now a retired Rear Admiral and member of the Navy Memorial Foundation's Board of Directors. He is the first in a long succession of naval aviators to enter America's space program‹including Marine Corps pilot John Glenn, the first American to orbit the earth (February 1962), and Navy pilot Neil Armstrong, the first person to set foot on the Moon (July 1969). Conducted under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, these and all other U. S. manned space flights ‹until the advent of today's shuttle missions‹ wound up in the hands of U. S. Navy recovery forces at sea, as portrayed in this bronze relief.
The Navy continues to serve as a pipeline of aviation expertise for the nation's astronaut programs
Sculptor: Robert Summers.
18. United States Marine Corps
Amphibious Assault - Inchon 1950. Unlike other amphibious landings "across beaches" characteristic of World War II, the amphibious landing at Inchon, Korea, presented a unique set of circumstances‹extreme tidal variations, swift currents and the obstruction of a high sea wall for the Marines to scale. Fleet Admiral William F. Halsey called it ``the most masterly and audacious strategic stroke in all history."
Almost every major offensive campaign the United States launched during World War II was initiated by an amphibious assault, as were the principal offensives of the Korean War.
Marines and amphibious warfare go together, the melding of the Navy-Marine Corps Team. Amphibious warfare integrates virtually all types of ships, aircraft, weapons and landing forces in a concerted military effort against a hostile shore; one of the most potent of these resources is the Marines.
The Marine Corps dates from the resolution of the Continental Congress on November 10, 1775, authorizing two battalions of Marines. The Marines served gallantly throughout the revolution, as they have throughout America's history‹``From the halls of Montezuma, to the Shores of Tripoli," on land, on sea and in the air, in wartime and peacetime. The story of World War II in the Pacific cannot be told without major dependence on the glorious record of the Marines. Guadalcanal, Tarawa, the Marshalls, the Marianas, the Palaus and finally, Iwo Jima, where ``uncommon valor was a common virtue." In Korea, the Inchon landing depicted in the bronze relief was a pivotal point in the war, enabling the United Nations forces to shift from a defensive posture to an offensive one. The Navy-Marine assault forced the enemy North Korean armies to withdraw rapidly northward.
In Vietnam, Marines compiled a distinguished record in combat both in amphibious operations and sustained operations ashore. Most recently, the Marines were engaged in combat in the Persian Gulf, for the liberation of Kuwait.
Sponsored by past and present United States Marines, with a contribution from Waste Management Corporation. Sculptor: Fred Press.
19. United States Coast Guard - Semper Paratus - "Always Ready"
The United States Coast Guard was founded on August 4, 1790, by Alexander Hamilton and has a dual role that is unique among the services. By statute, organization and operation, the Coast Guard normally operates as part of the Department of Transportation. In time of war or when the President so directs, it operates under control of the Navy. Regardless, it is truly a naval service, and one that has maintained a tradition of professional excellence and dedicated service for 200 years. The Coast Guard fulfills three primary missions: defense readiness, maritime safety and maritime law enforcement. The service operates ships, specialized vessels, rotary and fixed wing aircraft, research and development facilities and shore installations. The distinctive white hulls of Coast Guard vessels, carrying the unique slash-stripes on the bows, are instantly recognized.
As depicted in this bronze relief, the Coast Guard is renowned for its rescues at sea of sailors and recreational boaters in distress. The Coast Guard is also known for its aggressive role in the war on drugs and for disaster relief. The Coast Guard establishes and maintains America's aids to navigation such as lighthouses, radio beacons, buoys and other markers in the channels and sea lanes of bays and rivers. They assist marine commerce by opening ice-blocked channels and ports, and they are the licensing and safety certification authority for the operation of all but the smallest of boats. They are likewise engaged in the prevention and cleanup of pollution and the protection of U. S. fisheries.
Sculptor: Robert Summers. Sponsored by past and present members of the United States Coast Guard, with contributions from the Coast Guard Chief Petty Officers Association, General Electric, Arco Marine Inc. and Sealand Service Inc.
20. Exploration, Oceanography, Research in Antarctica - 1840
Throughout America's history, the U.S. Navy has played a significant role, including leadership, in scientific research. The role is exemplified in this bronze relief by one of the Navy's earliest research ventures, the U.S. Exploring Expedition of 1838-1842 led by Navy Lieutenant Charles Wilkes.
Lieutenant Wilkes led what was the United States' first international exploration. In addition to discovering and circumnavigating the Antarctic continent‹thereby proving Antarctica a continent, he continued on to chart Pacific waters and the west coast of the United States. Some of his charts were used by U.S. forces in World War II.
Wilkes' survey of the Antarctic coast was the opening chapter of the Navy's subsequent history in polar exploration and research. Wilkes was truly a pioneer in the Navy's involvement in scientific research. In the middle of the nineteenth century, the Navy established its first testing laboratories to keep pace with civilian inventions and general progress of technology. In 1923, the Navy opened the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, and today the Navy operates a comprehensive system for research, development, test and evaluation across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Sculptor: Antonio Tobias Mendez
21. U.S. Merchant Marine, U.S. Navy Armed Guard—"We deliver."
A nation's merchant ships are an important part of her sea power, especially in time of war when they provide the vital link between the fighting force overseas and the industrial output on the homefront. In both world wars the Merchant Marine/Navy Armed Guard team met the challenge and delivered.
Shown in this bronze relief is a convoy under attack while enroute to Murmansk during World War II; though manned by civilian crews, the ships carried gun crews of Navy gunners: the U. S. Navy Armed Guard. “The run to Murmansk" was the most direct logistic link between America and the USSR, then struggling for survival against Nazi Germany. The voyage combined all the elements of danger from man and nature alike. Throughout the war, wherever these convoys sailed, the slow, gray ships and brave crews were exposed to attack by dive bombers, surface raiders and submarines. The U. S. Navy Armed Guard contingents formed each ship's only on-board protection against the enemy; the gun crews were often augmented by merchant seamen from the ships' crews. Despite significant opposition by a determined enemy, the teams worked together to deliver the cargoes to our deployed forces.
The sculptor, Robert Lamb, is a U.S. Merchant Marine Academy graduate and a veteran of World War II's Murmansk convoys. This bronze relief was made possible by contributions from the Seafarers International Union, alumni of the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, and the state merchant marine academies, and by veterans of the Merchant Marine, as well as the U.S. Navy Armed Guard Association.
22. United States Naval Academy - Annapolis, MD
Ex Scientia Tridens - "From knowledge, sea power"
The role of the Naval Academy is to educate and train young men and women to become officers in the United States Navy and the Marine Corps. Founded in 1845 by George Bancroft, Secretary of the Navy under President James K. Polk, the Academy is located on the banks of the Severn River, an hour's drive from the Navy Memorial. The bronze relief shows marching formations in front of Bancroft Hall.
The Naval Academy aims to develop midshipmen morally, mentally and physically, and to imbue them with the highest ideals of duty, honor and loyalty‹enabling them to be professional officers in the naval service and to progress to the highest responsibilities of command, citizenship and government. Candidates for appointment as midshipmen must meet high physical, academic and moral standards. Graduates receive their diplomas and commissions during June Week; for one such June Week, in 1907, the song "Anchors Aweigh" was composed.
Academy graduates continue to distinguish themselves in military roles as well as in corporate and public life. President Jimmy Carter, Class of 1947, was the first Academy graduate to hold the highest office in the land.
Sponsored by the United States Naval Academy Alumni Association. Sculptor: Miklos Simon
23. Destroyer Escorts—"Trim but Deadly"
The bronze relief commemorating these ships and their crews was the first to be dedicated at the Navy Memorial on September 1, 1990. For the occasion, President George Bush sent greetings: “The brave American and the swift, highly maneuverable vessels memorialized by this plaque have earned a special place of honor in American naval history. Those who served aboard Destroyer Escorts during World War II were part of a generation that was called to defend our way of life against the forces of tyranny and aggression. DE crews fought courageously to protect the lifeline of ships that supplied the arsenal of freedom. Sinking enemy submarines, battling kamikazes, and rescuing downed aviators and sailors in distress, they played a pivotal role in the war at sea and contributed to the Allied victory.”
“The plaque will be a lasting testament to the dedication and sacrifice of the DE Sailor—not only those who served during World War II but also those who carried on their outstanding legacy in Korea and Vietnam. It will serve as a poignant reminder of the great debt we owe to all the men and women of our Nation's seafaring services . . . I applaud the spirit of the DE Sailor.”
The creation of the DE was an historic event, born of necessity and produced in quantity an example of American ingenuity and production capability. Manned almost entirely by Naval Reservists, the DEs were commanded by the likes of W. Graham Claytor, former Secretary of the Navy, and the late football coaching great "Woody" Hayes. The multipurpose ships of World War II, Korea, and Vietnam, DEs ranged between 1,140 and 1,450 tons, about 300 feet long with a 35-foot beam, capable of 20 to 24 knots, and had crews of between 200 and 225. Approximately 600 destroyer escorts were built, most of them on a crash schedule of 90 days.
Some 150,000 Navy men have served in these versatile ships, earning for themselves the proud distinction of Destroyer Escort Sailors. They evince this pride in their sponsorship of their bronze relief by sculptor Gilbert A. Franklin through the Destroyer Escort Sailors Association.
24. Opening Japan for Commerce - Commodore Matthew Perry - 1854
Out of mistrust of missionaries and foreign traders, Japan had been by its own choice a hermit country, cut off from the outside world for more than two centuries. Foreigners were not welcome and Japanese could not leave their country. Sailors, including Americans, who were shipwrecked on Japan's shores were often mistreated or killed. U. S. government concern prompted the mission of Commodore Matthew C. Perry and with his sail and steam-powered ``Black Ships." Perry was ordered to open diplomatic and trade relations with Japan and ensure the safety of shipwrecked American sailors. He sailed into Tokyo Bay on July 8, 1853, to lay the groundwork for a return visit the following year.
Considering that the Japanese had fired on the ships of other nations attempting such visits, Perry evidently impressed the Japanese with his show of force and dignity. It was a mission that demanded exceptional diplomacy. The commodore's philosophy was to adopt two extremes ``. . . by an exhibition of great pomp, when it could properly be displayed, and by avoiding it, when such pomp would be inconsistent with the spirit of our institutions."
When Perry made his second visit, in March 1854, the Japanese signed a treaty which opened for American trade the ports of Hakodate and Shimoda. Today in Shimoda, the Japanese and the U. S. Seventh Fleet annually celebrate the Black Ship Festival.
Sculptor: Leo C. Irrera
25. Captain John Paul Jones ``. . . in Harm's Way"
John Paul Jones emerges from the Revolutionary War as one of the Navy's greatest heroes and tradition makers. None of these traditions stands out more conspicuously than his refusal to acknowledge defeat, even against overwhelming odds: ``I have not yet begun to fight," he replied, when asked to surrender his ship Bonhomme Richard. With this indomitable resolve, the spirit of the U. S. Navy is embodied in John Paul Jones.
Founded by the Continental Congress in 1775, the American Navy faced a formidable foe in the mighty and usually invincible Royal Navy. It acquitted itself surprisingly well and by the end of 1777 had captured 464 British vessels. That year, as a reward for his accomplishments in Providence and Alfred, Captain John Paul Jones was given command of the 18-gun sloop of war Ranger. On February 14, 1778, in Quiberon Bay, France, the flagship of a French fleet fired a salute to Ranger‹the first salute to the Stars and Stripes by a foreign warship.
Two months later Ranger defeated HMS Drake in the Irish Sea, which battle is depicted in the bronze relief by sculptor Fred Press. Later, in anticipation of yet another command, Jones set forth his specifications, ``I wish to have no connection with any ship that does not sail fast, for I intend to go in harm's way."
The relief is made possible in part by a contribution from the Navy V-12 Program National Committee. The V-12 Program was one of several commissioning programs for naval officers instituted during World War II.
26. Landing Ship Tank (LST)
The tank landing ship (LST, for "Landing Ship, Tank") was created during World War II to support amphibious operations by carrying significant quantities of vehicles, cargo, and landing troops directly onto an unimproved shore. During the war, 1,051 LST’s were built. These ships played a huge role in guaranteeing the success of amphibious landings in Europe and the Pacific. By carrying cargo and other landing craft to shore, the LST proved to be priceless. Designed so it could land directly on the beach, the LST was an integral part of all amphibious operations.
The LST proved to be a remarkably versatile ship. A number of them were converted to become landing craft repair ships (ARL), and "Mother Ships," which had berthing for 200+, a bake shop and 16 refrigeration boxes for fresh provisions, and the ballast tanks for fresh water storage. Thirty-eight LST's were converted to serve as small hospital ships that removed casualties from the beach following the landing of their cargo of tanks and vehicles. In the later stages of World War II, some LST's were even fitted with flight decks from which small observation planes were sent up during amphibious operations.
Throughout the war, LST's demonstrated a remarkable capacity to absorb punishment and survive. Despite the sobriquet, "Large Slow Target," which was applied to them by irreverent crew members, the LST's suffered few losses in proportion to their number and the scope of their operations. Their brilliantly conceived structural arrangement provided unusual strength and buoyancy. Although the LST was considered a valuable target by the enemy, only 26 were lost due to enemy action, and a mere 13 were the victims of weather, reef, or accident.
Wikipedia Description: United States Navy Memorial
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The United States Navy Memorial at 7th Street between Pennsylvania Avenue and Indiana Avenue in Washington, D.C. (701 Pennsylvania Ave, NW) honors those who have served or are currently serving in the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, and the Merchant Marine.
The National Park Service, through its National Mall and Memorial Parks administrative unit, provides technical and maintenance assistance to the foundation. The memorial is adjacent to the Archives–Navy Memorial–Penn Quarter station and the National Archives building.
Associated with the Memorial is the U.S. Navy Memorial Museum. From March to October the museum is open to the public Monday through Saturday. From November to February the museum is open Tuesday through Saturday.
For America’s sea services, The United States Navy Memorial is the triumph of a centuries-old dream. In the early days of America’s national independence, architect Pierre L'Enfant envisioned a memorial in the Nation’s Capital "to celebrate the first rise of the Navy and consecrate its progress and achievements." But it was only in the twentieth century that L’Enfant’s vision of a Navy Memorial in Washington, D.C. was realized.
Pennsylvania Avenue, “America’s Main Street,” the boulevard that links the U.S. Capitol and White House, the scene of so many parades, pageants, and national memories, was chosen to be the location.
After President John F. Kennedy – himself a Navy war hero – inspired the redevelopment of Pennsylvania Avenue, another Navy war hero, Admiral Arleigh Burke, proclaimed in 1977 that “we have talked long enough about a Navy Memorial and it's time we did something about it."
In the Spring of 1977, Burke, World War II war hero and former three-term Chief of Naval Operations, started to recruit a group to form the private, non-profit U. S. Navy Memorial Foundation. The following year, the Foundation, lead by Rear Admiral William Thompson, USN (Ret.), started to work on the five steps necessary in the building of a memorial in Washington: enabling legislation, design, site selection, fund raising and construction and maintenance.
Congress authorized the Memorial in 1980, with the stipulation that funding come solely from private contributions. In March 1980, President Jimmy Carter signed Public Law 96-199, which authorized the Memorial as a part of a larger Department of the Interior bill.
Although a number of sites in Washington, DC were possible, the Foundation teamed up with the Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation to use Market Square as the site for the Memorial. The Foundation and the Corporation jointly selected Conklin Rossant of New York as architects.
By December 1985, the Foundation had raised enough funds to warrant a go-ahead approval from the Secretary of the Interior, and construction got underway the following month. (The Foundation staff and Board of Directors had raised $18-million by opening day of the Visitors Center, and fund raising continues today, to retire remaining construction debt and support educational programs undertaken by the Foundation.)
By August 1987, Stanley Bleifeld completed work on the The Lone Sailor statue as construction of the Memorial neared completion at the site.
The Memorial was dedicated on October 13, 1987.
From late 1987 to mid-1990, two buildings were constructed on the Memorial's northern perimeter. The eastern of the two buildings was selected for the Memorial's Visitors Center. The building's shell was sufficiently completed by September 1989 to allow construction to begin for the interior of the Visitors Center. The Visitors Center opened in June 1991 and was formally dedicated on October 12, 1991.
During the summer of 2006, the water in the fountains of the Navy Memorial was colored blue due to the presence of chemicals added to the water to fight algae growth. According to a spokesperson for the memorial, the algae has been surprisingly difficult to remove, and that they "figured it was better to have blue water than to have an algae-encrusted memorial." The blue water was gone by the end of the summer.
The United States Navy Memorial is home to the Memorial Plaza, which features Stanly Bleifield's famous statue, The Lone Sailor. The Lone Sailor, a tribute to all personnel of the sea services, overlooks the Granite Sea, an exact replication of the world's oceans. Surrounding the Granite Sea are two fountain pools, honoring the personnel of the American Navy and the other navies of the world. The southern hemisphere of the Granite Sea is surrounded by 26 bronze bas-reliefs commemorating events, personnel, and communities of the various sea services.
Adjacent to the Memorial Plaza is the Naval Heritage Center, which features the Arleigh Burke Theater, several rotating exhibits about the sea services, and houses several Navy Log kiosks, for easy registration on the Navy Log. The Naval Heritage Center also features daily screenings of the films At Sea and A Day in the Life of the Blue Angels. The Media Resource Center provides a library of printed, audio and video historical documents on the Navy and The Navy Log room has touch-screen kiosks to register and search for Sea Service members and veterans.
On an outdoor wall at the Naval Memorial are engraved noteworthy sayings from the history of the US Navy, and who said them. Here are some of them:
* "I have not yet begun to fight!" - Captain John Paul Jones - 1779
* "Don't give up the ship!" - Captain James Lawrence - 1813
* "We have met the enemy and they are ours." - Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry - 1813
* "Damn the torpedoes, full steam ahead." - Admiral David Farragut - 1864
* "You may fire when you are ready, Gridley." - Commodore George Dewey - 1898
* "Sighted sub, sank same" - Aviation Machinist's Mate 1/c Donald Francis Mason - 1942
* "Underway on nuclear power." - Commander Eugene P. Wilkinson - January 17, 1955
Bigger photos? To save space on the server and because the modern camera images are so large, photos larger than 640x480 have not been loaded on this page. If you need the bigger sizes of selected photos, email me and I can email them back to you or I can re-load this page temporarily with the bigger versions restored.
2018 photos: Equipment this year: I continued to use my Fuji XS-1 cameras but, depending on the event, I also used a Nikon D7000.
Trips this year:
(February) a Civil War Trust conference in Greenville, NC,
(May/June) anual American Battlefield Trust conference in Newport News, VA,
(July) my 13th consecutive trip to San Diego Comic-Con via Reno, Sacramento, San Francisco, and Los Angeles,
(August) 2 two-day trips to New York City,
(September) an American Battlefield Trust dinner in Chicago, IL with on-route visits to Charleston, WV, Louisville, KY, Saint Louis, MO, and Toledo, OH,
(October) another two-day trip to New York City for the New York Comic Con.
Number of photos taken this year: about 535,000.