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NEWBLO_171001_001.JPG: Internet TV and Radio
NEWBLO_171001_005.JPG: Electronic News
1922: Radio-equipped car
1927: Charles Lindbergh
NEWBLO_171001_017.JPG: Radio Comes Alive:
The first licensed commercial radio station, KDKA in Pittsburgh, went on the air Nov. 2, 1920, with a news report on the presidential election results (right, KDKA microphone flag and early RCA microphone with Mutual flag). Station owner Westinghouse made money by selling radios. Paid advertising came later.
NEWBLO_171001_022.JPG: Experimental Television:
On Sept. 7, 1927, Philo Farnsworth, the "father of television," successfully transmitted the first electronic TV signal. A dollar sign was one of the first images broadcast.
RCA's early TV experiments in 1929 featured a 12-inch Felix the Cat (right). RCA waged a length legal war against Farnsworth and eventually gained control of his technology.
NEWBLO_171001_025.JPG: Big Business:
RCA, GE and Westinghouse joined forces to create the National Broadcasting Company. NBC, founded by David Sarnoff (upper left, seated at left), began broadcasting in November 1926.
William S. Paley (lower right, standing) founded the Columbia Broadcasting System, known as CBS. The network went on the air in 1928.
For both networks, the kidnapping of Charles Lindbergh's infant son in 1932 became a major radio news story.
NEWBLO_171001_033.JPG: Fireside Chats:
Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first president to use the radio to communicate directly with the public on a regular basis. His "fireside chats" helped lead the nation through the Depression. He used these microphones and this stopwatch during his carefully timed radio broadcasts.
1935: Franklin D. Roosevelt
1936: Adolf Hitler
1937: Hindenburg Disaster
NEWBLO_171001_044.JPG: Hate Radio:
Adolf Hitler used radio to spread his anti-Semitic propaganda and inflame nationalist passions in Germany. The Nazis planned to use the 1936 Berlin Olympics to showcase "Aryan supremacy." But African-American runner Jesse Owens won four gold medals, and radio news reports helped expose Hitler's propaganda as a "big lie."
NEWBLO_171001_046.JPG: It'll Never Work:
Early television had trouble with the color white. In 1936, singer Dinah Shore (right0 had to wear green makeup and black lipstick for an NBC experiment. Shore later said, "I thought TV would never work if performers had to look as ugly as I did."
NEWBLO_171001_048.JPG: "Oh, the Humanity!"
WLS radio announcer Herb Morrison (right, in long coat) was testing a new disc recorder on May 7, 1937, when the Hindenburg, a hydrogen-filled dirigible, exploded as it arrived in Lakehurst, NJ. His dramatic eyewitness account was broadcast later on NBC using the new technology. Until then almost all news broadcasts had been live.
NEWBLO_171001_052.JPG: On the Air:
Television's US public debut was an address by President Franklin Roosevelt on April 30, 1939, at the World's Fair in New York (left). RCA demonstrated its new technology by sending images to receivers at several locations around the city. Participants were given cards like this one. A new trade paper, Tele-Flash Television News, heralded the arrival of television and predicted the coming competition with radio.
NEWBLO_171001_057.JPG: "This... Is London"
World War II drove millions of people to the radio for the latest news. Edward R. Murrow's dramatic live reporting from London during the Battle of Britain brought the war into America's living rooms. Murrow (right) and his team of CBS reporters pioneered a new form of broadcast journalism that combined eyewitness reporting, personal expertise and descriptive writing.
NEWBLO_171001_066.JPG: The Sound of War:
Radio coverage of the D-Day invasion aired nonstop from early morning of June 6, 1944, for several days on all networks. Wright Bryan is credited with the first eyewitness report on the air.
Both Germany and Japan used radio to try to demoralize American GIs. Iva Toguri (right) was one of several "Tokyo Roses" who used this microphone in their broadcasts.
NEWBLO_171001_075.JPG: A Woman's Voice:
Pauline Frederick covered World War II as both a newspaper and radio reporter. After the war she covered the United Nations for ABC. She is credited with being the first woman to report the news on a television network. Frederick used this typewriter during the war.
NEWBLO_171001_083.JPG: The Evening News:
In 1948, NBC and CBS launched daily evening newscasts. On CBS it was "Douglas Edwards With the News" (right), while John Cameron Swayze hosted the "Camel News Caravan" on NBC (far right, with game).
In 1949, the Federal Communications Commission established the "Fairness Doctrine," stating the broadcasters had an obligation to offer different points of view on controversial issues. The Fairness Doctrine remained in effect until the 1980s.
NEWBLO_171001_087.JPG: Korean War Stories:
When the Cold War became "hot" in Korea, radio chronicled it all, from the fall of Seoul to the end of the war. Gen. Douglas MacArthur and his wife learned he had been fired through a radio news report.
NEWBLO_171001_089.JPG: TV Takes Off:
Legendary CBS Radio reporter Edward R. Murrow jumped to television in 1952 with the premiere of his program "See It Now." Murrow tackled difficult and controversial subjects.
Sales of televisions, such as this portable Admiral model, were skyrocketing. By 1956, 72 percent of American homes had TV, up from just 9 percent in 1950.
NEWBLO_171001_094.JPG: I Like Radio!
Radio, available in 95 percent of American homes, was still the dominant form of broadcast news. But in 1952 it had to compete with live television coverage of the political conventions.
The first transistor radio, the Regency model TR-1, came on the market in 1954. These small portable radios launched the era of consumer microelectronics.
NEWBLO_171001_098.JPG: Anchors Away:
CBS News introduced Walter Cronkite (third from left) as the first "anchor" for its team coverage of the 1952 political conventions.
NBC followed suit in 1956, introducing the team of Chet Huntley (lower left) and David Brinkley (lower right).
NEWBLO_171001_102.JPG: The Space Race:
The first satellite to orbit the earth, the USSR's Sputnik (right), transmitted radio signals in 1957 that were picked up by receivers around the world. The success of the Soviet satellite started the space race.
NEWBLO_171001_104.JPG: Civil Rights on TV:
In 1957, television helped turn the forced integration of Central High School in Little Rock, Ark., into a national story. TV interviews with students involved (below) helped get their story out and built support for the civil rights movement.
At about the same time, Ampex Corp. introduced the world's first videotape recorder. It used reels of 2-inch magnetic tape (right).
1950 -- U.N. Troops, Korea
1952 -- Dwight D. Eisenhower
1957 -- Little Rock
1961 -- The Kennedys
1963 -- Martin Luther King Jr.
1964 -- The Beatles
NEWBLO_171001_118.JPG: Kennedy Vs. Nixon
Who Really Won?
The first Kennedy-Nixon presidential debate (right) was carried live on radio and TV in 1960. A majority of radio listeners thought Richard Nixon won the debate, but television viewers overwhelmingly thought John Kennedy won. The influence of radio news continued to diminish while television's power grew.
NEWBLO_171001_121.JPG: TV Tops Newspapers:
The power of television was demonstrated during the 1960 presidential campaign. John Kennedy (right) effectively used TV coverage to get his message out, while Richard Nixon was less comfortable with the new medium. Television highlighted Kennedy's good lucks and charm and helped him the election.
By 1963, TV had surpassed newspapers as the leading source of news for Americans.
NEWBLO_171001_124.JPG: March on Washington:
The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech, during the 1963 March on Washington (right), was broadcast live on national radio. Civil rights leaders used radio to help spread their message of nonviolent protest and equality.
NEWBLO_171001_127.JPG: Radio Loses Power
A Nation Mourns:
New portable equipment allowed TV correspondents to make live breaking news reports in the coverage that followed President Kennedy's assassination on Nov. 22, 1963. For the first time, the whole country watched history unfold in real time.
Right, from top: Kennedy's car speeds to the hospital; Lee Harvey Oswald is surrounded by the press; Kennedy's doctor talks to reporters.
This booklet (far right) chronicles CBS's four days of commercial-free coverage.
NEWBLO_171001_132.JPG: Music Takes Over:
The Beatles' arrival in New York in 1964 (right) was covered live on radio as a major news event. Although rock music began to dominate the airwaves, a handful of stations were turning to a new format: all news.
NEWBLO_171001_135.JPG: Networks Dominate:
In the mid-1960s, the "Big Three" networks -- CBS, NBC, and ABC -- dominated the television industry.
The A.C. Nielsen Company, which measured audiences using personal diaries and equipment such as this Audimeter and Recordimeter, estimated that the three evening news programs were watched by more than 70 percent of the viewing audience.
NEWBLO_171001_142.JPG: The Microchip Paves the Way:
In the mid-1960s, computers shrank in size and grew in popularity thanks to the integrated circuit, or microchip, invented by engineers Jack Kilby (right) and Robert Noyce in 1958. The microchip, which put a roomful of computing power onto a fingernail-size chip, paved the way for such communication breakthroughs as personal computers, the Internet and smartphones.
NEWBLO_171001_144.JPG: Bad News:
Television coverage of the events of 1968 presented a nation in turmoil. The bad news included the assassinations of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. and Sen. Robert F. Kennedy, race riots, casualties in Vietnam, anti-war protests and chaos at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago. The TV networks were attacked for being biased against the government. Vice President Spiro Agnew later accused them of presenting "a narrow and distorted picture of America." CBS News anchor Walter Cronkite (right) called the attack "an implied threat to freedom of speech in this country."
NEWBLO_171001_147.JPG: Tumultuous Times:
The war in Vietnam and the cultural revolution of the 1960s created a "generation gap." Campus radio stations, such as WFCR at the University of Massachusetts (right), became an alternative source of news for the younger generation.
NEWBLO_171001_150.JPG: 1966 -- U.S. Troops, Vietnam
1969 -- Moon Landing
1971 -- Richard M. Nixon
NEWBLO_171001_152.JPG: Apollo 11
Live From the Moon:
Radio news coverage of the Apollo 11 moon landing in 1969 was heard by up to 1 billion people worldwide.
NEWBLO_171001_154.JPG: TV's Greatest Moment:
Live coverage of the Apollo 11 mission to the moon attracted the largest television audience to that date, estimated at more than 600 million people. Many consider it to be broadcast news' greatest moment. The satellite technology that made it possible would lead to 24-hour news programming.
This RCA TV camera was used by Apollo astronauts in training for the moon mission.
NEWBLO_171001_160.JPG: ARPANET -- The Beginning:
In 1969, a Defense Department-funded research program named ARPANET created the technical infrastructure that eventually became the Internet.
These diagrams show how research facilities at Stanford, UCLA, UC Santa Barbara and the University of Utah were connected in December 1979 and how the network grew.
NEWBLO_171001_164.JPG: Public Airwaves:
In 1970, National Public Radio (NPR) was created, and the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) began broadcasting. Strong editorial content and talented on-air correspondents gradually built a large and loyal following.
In 1972, NPR's Susan Stamberg (right) became the first female anchor of a national radio news program. She used this tape recorder and microphone in her reporting.
NEWBLO_171001_169.JPG: Nixon's Enemies:
President Richard M. Nixon and Vice President Spiro Agnew attacked the press as biased, especially TV news reporters, and in 1971 created an "enemies list." Nixon threatened Washington Post-owned TV stations with the loss of their FCC licenses in retaliation for the newspaper's Watergate coverage. As the scandal spread, TV networks covered Congressional hearings live (right).
NEWBLO_171001_173.JPG: A First Look:
ARPANET was publicly displayed for the first time in 1972, at the International Conference on Computer Communications in Washington, DC. The demonstrations were a tremendous success. One of the best known featured a conversation between ELIZA, an artificially intelligent "psychiatrist" at MIT, and PARRY, a paranoid computer at Stanford University.
NEWBLO_171001_176.JPG: Radio Waves:
In 1971, the Washington Post Co. donated its FM station to Howard University, which created WHUR. Featuring disc jockeys, such as "Nighthawk" Bob Terry (right), WHUR was one of the first black-owned, black-operated radio stations with a newscast created especially for black listeners.
NEWBLO_171001_181.JPG: The Face of Terror:
The 1972 Olympics in Munich, Germany, were transformed from a sporting event into an international crisis when terrorists killed two Israeli athletes and took nine others hostage. Jim McKay (upper right) of ABC quickly switched from sports announcer to news anchor. The nine hostages and five terrorists were killed in a shootout with police. ABC Sports' Roone Arledge (lower right) led the coverage. He became head of ABC's news division in 1977.
NEWBLO_171001_183.JPG: Smart Computers:
Science fiction entertainment in the late 1960s, including the TV program "Star Trek" (right) and the film "2001: A Space Odyssey," portrayed humans interacting with smart computers. By the mid-1970s, science began to catch up to pop culture when people started using computers to communicate with each other.
NEWBLO_171001_186.JPG: FM Radio: A Clear Alternative:
FM radio offered better fidelity than AM, and its popularity grew rapidly during the 1960s and '70s. When the FCC required original programming on all FM stations (rather than simulcasts from sister AM stations), many of them, including Washington's WHFS (right), targeted younger listeners with popular music. Rock music formats often marginalized news, which created opportunities for all-news radio.
NEWBLO_171001_189.JPG: The Odd Couple:
Television helped make Muhammad Ali one of the most famous people in the world. ABC's Howard Cosell covered Ali (right) throughout his career. During one memorable broadcast hosted by Cosell, Ali and Joe Frasier started fighting in the studio and had to be pulled apart. Sports coverage helped ABC, the lowest-rated network, gain viewers and build up its news division.
NEWBLO_171001_191.JPG: The Internet is Born:
Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn developed the TCP/IP technology that created the Internet. Cerf, who coined the term "Internet," was elected the first chairman of the International Network Working Group (INWG) in 1972. The INWG set standards for the growing network of computers. Cerf later became known as the "Father of the Internet."
NEWBLO_171001_195.JPG: 1972 -- Palestinian terrorist
1974 -- Muhammad Ali
1979 -- Ayatollah Khomeini
1980 -- Ronald Reagan
1981 -- Royal Wedding
1986 -- Challenger
1989 -- Fall of the Berlin Wall
NEWBLO_171001_200.JPG: Islamic Revolution:
While in exile in Paris, the Ayatollah Khomeini sent tape-recorded sermons to Iran, which helped to topple the ruling shah. After Khomeini's triumphant return, radicals loyal to the ayayollah seized the U.S. Embassy on Nov. 4, 1979. Some of the American hostages were paraded before the media by the radicals (right).
NEWBLO_171001_202.JPG: Late-Night News:
Iranian radicals held 52 Americans hostage in Tehran for 444 days. Ted Koppel (right) of ABC News began anchoring a late-night news show to cover the crisis. That program evolved into "Nightline," the most successful late-night news program in history.
C-Span, the Cable Satellite Public Affairs Network, also premiered in 1979. Founder Brian Lamb persuaded the cable industry to fund a nonprofit network dedicated to providing gavel-to-gavel coverage of Congress.
NEWBLO_171001_206.JPG: The Failure of Teletext:
During the 1970s and '80s, many big media companies explored new ways of delivering news. They futilely invested hundreds of millions of dollars in teletext and videotex services such as the BBC's Ceefax (above), which transmitted information encoded in television signals. But they ignored the rising popularity of personal computers and completely missed the potential of the Internet.
NEWBLO_171001_208.JPG: The Great Communicator:
President Ronald Reagan (right, at a press conference) started his career as a radio announcer. His speaking skills earned him the title "the great communicator." When campaigning, Reagan combined evocative language with carefully staged backdrops to create memorable "photo-ops," such as the use of American flags to enhance his campaign slogan, "Morning in America."
NEWBLO_171001_213.JPG: "This is CNN"
The premier of CNN (Cable News Network) in 1980 marked the beginning of the 24-hour news cycle on TV. Ted Turner (right) and his low-budget operation were mocked by critics at first. But "Chicken Noodle News" gradually earned respect by delivering strong international reporting and significant profits.
NEWBLO_171001_215.JPG: The 'Trash-80':
The Radio Shack TRS-80 model 100, affectionately known as the "Trash-80," was one of the first portable computers used by reporters in the field (including the New York Post's Ira Mayer, right).
This computer was used by ABC News producers to the file scripts over phone lines from remote locations.
NEWBLO_171001_221.JPG: Outrageous Radio:
In 1986, Howard Stern (left) premiered his national radio show with Infinity Broadcasting. The shock jock's off-color humor and on-air antics drew a large audience but cost radio stations millions in fines from the FCC.
NEWBLO_171001_223.JPG: Princess Diana:
Charles Philip Arthur George, the Prince of Wales and heir to the British throne, married Lady Diana Spencer on July 29, 1981, at St. Paul's Cathedral in London in a ceremony full of pageantry (right). The worldwide television audience was estimated at 750 million.
NEWBLO_171001_225.JPG: Machine of the Year:
As personal computers entered the home and office in large numbers, journalists began to explore new technologies to put news online. Time magazine named the personal computer 1982's "Machine of the Year." In 1984, Apple released the first Macintosh, which revolutionized personal computing.
NEWBLO_171001_230.JPG: Rush to Judgment:
Rush Limbaugh (right, with George H.W. Bush) started out as a Top 40 disc jockey but switched to talk radio in 1984. Limbaugh's show was syndicated nationally in 1988. He soon became America's top-rated radio host and generated controversy and profits by attacking "feminazis," "environmental wackos" and the "liberal media."
The repeal of the "Fairness Doctrine" in 1987 freed stations from having to present both sides of an issue, the same freedom newspapers have always had.
NEWBLO_171001_233.JPG: The Challenger Disaster:
By Jan. 28, 1986, the "space race" was over and NASA's shuttle launches had become so routine that the broadcast networks no longer carried them live. CNN was the only network on the air with live national coverage when the Challenger exploded shortly after liftoff (right).
NEWBLO_171001_235.JPG: America Online:
In the late 1980s, the Internet began to expand beyond academic institutions but was still too technical for most people. Online dial-up services such as CompuServe and America Online offered news, information and bulletin boards to subscribers who paid a monthly fee.
NEWBLO_171001_238.JPG: Berlin Wall
Radio Free Europe:
The concrete and barbed wire of the Berlin Wall could not keep out the free flow of news from Western media sources such as Radio Free Europe (microphone, right), an American-funded broadcaster targeting communist countries.
East Germany opened its borders in 1989 after growing unrest and large public protests. Two years later, the Soviet Union dissolved.
NEWBLO_171001_241.JPG: The Wall Comes Down:
The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 offered the world a televised event that symbolized the victory of a free society over communism.
By contrast, the communist Chinese authorities shut down news coverage of the Tiananmen Square protests in 1989 before brutally suppressing the demonstrations, causing thousands of casualties.
NEWBLO_171001_246.JPG: Digital News:
In 1991, Kodak, in partnership with Nikon, introduced the first professional digital camera system. This 1994 model, the NC2000, was used by the Associated Press. It downloaded images directly onto a computer, which eliminated time-consuming film processing and allowed photographers such as David Breslauer (right) to send images back to the newsroom over telephone lines.
NEWBLO_171001_254.JPG: Touch and Explore: Portable News:
Advances in technology have made news and reporting more mobile. In the 1950s and '60s, Americans used hand-held transistor radios and portable televisions like these to tune in to news on the go. In the 1980s, reporters used early laptops, like this Tangy 102, to report from the field. Today, smartphones allow anyone to share audio and video from virtually anywhere.
1991 -- Gulf War
1992 -- William J. Clinton
1995 -- Oklahoma City Bombing
NEWBLO_171001_264.JPG: Gulf War
During the first Gulf War, the US military imposed tight restrictions on reporters. Eager to get the real story, National Public Radio's Neal Conan (right) crossed into Iraq from Kuwait without a military escort and was captured by Iraqi troops. He was held along with a number of other journalists and was eventually released unharmed.
NEWBLO_171001_266.JPG: Live From Baghdad:
CNN scooped the competition in 1991 at the start of the Gulf War. Peter Arnett, Bernard Shaw, and John Holliman used this special dedicated "four-wire" intercom (right) to take to their bureau in Jordan, which then transmitted their voices around the world. They bypassed Iraqi censors and described the dramatic scene as bombs fell outside their hotel. CNN became the first network to broadcast live from behind enemy lines during a war.
NEWBLO_171001_269.JPG: HTML -- What's That?
Tim Berners'Lee created Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and Universal Resource Locators (URLs), making the Internet easier to navigate, and the World Wide Web was born (left, first Web page). Vast amounts of information from around the globe could now be connected instantly by electronic links.
NEWBLO_171001_272.JPG: Bill Clinton
Talk Radio Turns Right:
Conservative talk radio hosts attacked Bill Clinton, bringing a harshly personal tone to partisan politics. Rush Limbaugh (right) and others focused on Clinton's legal problems and rumors of infidelity, appealing to an audience that believed the mainstream media had a liberal bias.
NEWBLO_171001_275.JPG: Rockin' the Vote:
Bill Clinton used nontraditional media outlets in his 1992 presidential campaign, including MTV and "The Arsenio Hall Show" (right). His media advisers George Stephanopoulos (upper far right) and James Carville (lower far right) became celebrities themselves.
NEWBLO_171001_278.JPG: The Web Comes Alive:
With the introduction of Netscape Mosaic and other user-friendly browsers, the public embraced the World Wide Web. The Web's spectacular growth, nearly 134,000 percent in 1993 (right), created a boom in new Internet companies, such as Yahoo and Amazon, hoping to profit from the growing audiences. Publications such as Wired magazine (far right) also targeted the new tech-savvy consumer.
NEWBLO_171001_281.JPG: NPR's Impact:
National Public Radio's European correspondent Sylvia Poggioli reported the secret story behind "ethnic cleansing" and the rape of Bosnian women. Her 1992 reports helped alert the world to the horrors of the war in the former Yugoslavia.
NEWBLO_171001_283.JPG: Talk Radio
The bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, attracted massive television news coverage. Domestic terrorism took center stage when Timothy McVeigh (upper right) was arrested for the bombing.
In 1996, two cable news networks were launched -- MSNBC, a partnership between Microsoft and NBC, and Fox News Channel. Initially criticized as a partisan outlet for media owner Rupert Murdoch (lower right), Fox eventually grew to be the highest-rated cable news network.
NEWBLO_171001_287.JPG: Bloomberg News:
Michael Bloomberg started Bloomberg LP as a financial information service that provided real-time digital data to investors using dedicated terminals. By 1995, the company had expanded to include a news service, radio and television programming, and a Wide site. The Bloomberg Television Data Screen (right) combines live video, real-time stock prices and news reports. Its multilayered content and continuous crawl revolutionized the way electronic news is packaged.
NEWBLO_171001_290.JPG: 1998 -- Presidential Scandal
2000 -- Election Recount
2001 -- World Trade Center
NEWBLO_171001_293.JPG: The Big Get Bigger:
When President Bill Clinton signed the 1996 Telecommunications Act (right), companies such as Clear Channel Communications and Infinity Broadcasting began acquiring large numbers of radio stations. Corporate consolidation became an issue when 2,045 radio stations changed ownership that year.
NEWBLO_171001_295.JPG: Web Scoops TV, Print:
Matt Drudge's 1998 scoop in his online Drudge Report that Newsweek had "killed" a story about a sex scandal involving President Clinton and intern Monica Lewinsky helped shift the balance of power between the "old media" of print and television to the "new media" of the Internet. Even the government realized the importance of this new technology: The report on the official inquiry into the scandal was released online.
NEWBLO_171001_297.JPG: News Gets Interactive:
The Philadelphia Inquirer pioneered a new era of online storytelling in 1997 with Mark Bowden's gripping reporting on the deadly 1993 battle between US Rangers and armed civilians in Mogadishu, Somalia. The multimedia online report "Black Hawk Down" offered video, audio and photographs and allowed readers to pose questions to Bowden. The serialized story drew 40,000 daily page views at its peak and later became a book and a movie.
NEWBLO_171001_301.JPG: Political Muscle:
Conservative talk radio hosts such as Sean Hannity strongly supported George W. Bush for president and attracted millions of listeners. They said that talk radio needed to balance the "liberal bias" of the mainstream media.
NEWBLO_171001_304.JPG: Mistakes Were Made:
On election night 2000, all the television news networks made repeated mistakes in announcing who won the election (right). In fact, the election was too close to call. Network anchors apologized to their viewers for the errors.
The election revealed flaws in Florida's voting machines (far right) with their butterfly ballots and hanging chads.
NEWBLO_171001_311.JPG: The Bubble Bursts:
When America Online's founder Steve Case and Time Warner CEO Gerald Levin announced the merger of their two corporations in 2000 (left), they created the largest media company in the world. But dot-com mania ended when the Internet stock bubble burst. AOL/Time Warner eventually lost $200 billion in market value. Staffs of online news services were cut, and many news Web sites closed.
NEWBLO_171001_315.JPG: 2003 -- Fall of Baghdad
2004 -- George W. Bush
2005 -- New Orleans
NEWBLO_171001_317.JPG: 2007 -- Virginia Tech Massacre
2009 -- Barack Obama
2013 -- Boston Marathon Bombing
2014 -- Ferguson Protests
NEWBLO_171001_320.JPG: Sept. 11, 2001
Sound of Terror:
For many Americans on their way to work, radio provided the first breaking news of the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, and the crash of a hijacked plane in Pennsylvania.
NEWBLO_171001_323.JPG: A Shocking Sight:
Live television coverage of the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11, 2001, allowed viewers around the world to watch as the tragedy unfolded. More than a billion people saw at least some of the event. The coverage was hailed as a great public service, and the networks were praised for airing no commercials for four days. NBC/WRC-TV's Megan McGrath (right) reported from the Pentagon.
NEWBLO_171001_326.JPG: Information Central:
The Sept. 11 terrorist attacks drove millions of people to news Web sites for the latest information, online discussions and eyewitness accounts. Families created Web sites to share information about missing loved ones (right).
NEWBLO_171001_331.JPG: Embedded Reporters:
The Defense Department initiated a new policy in 2003 allowing reporters to be embedded with military units during the war in Iraq. Live television coverage gave viewers a soldier's perspective on the war. David Bloom of NBC News (right) delivered live reports while racing across the Iraqi desert in the "Bloommobile," a satellite news-gathering system. He died of a blood clot while covering the war.
NEWBLO_171001_335.JPG: A New Form of News:
As estimated 1.4 million blogs were active in 2003. One young Iraqi blogger, who called himself "Salam Pax," described the hardships of everyday life in Baghdad during the invasion (Below) and attracted a global audience.
NEWBLO_171001_339.JPG: Talking to Voters:
Talk radio hosts continued to play a significant role in supporting the Republican agenda during the 2004 campaign. Of the 10 highest-rated talk shows, eight were hosted by conservatives, one by a moderate and one by a shock jock Howard Stern, who opposed President Bush. Democrats responded by launching Air America, a liberal radio network featuring hosts such as Al Franken.
NEWBLO_171001_342.JPG: Fair and Accurate?
The debate about bias in the media intensified during the 2004 presidential campaign. The Fox News Channel was accused to being too conservative, and the mainstream media were criticized as too liberal.
In September, CBS broadcast a segment on "60 Minutes II" about President Bush's Air National Guard service that later was revealed to be deeply flawed. Four CBS staffers lost their jobs, and Dan Rather (right) announced he would step down as anchor of the "CBS Evening News".
NEWBLO_171001_345.JPG: Blogs Flex Their Muscle:
The Internet played a significant role in several aspects of the 2004 elections, including news reporting, fundraising, attack ads and political commentary.
But the most significant event may have been the success that conservative blogs (right) had in discrediting the documents used in CBS's "60 Minutes II" segment on President Bush's Air National Guard service.
NEWBLO_171001_348.JPG: Hurricane Katrina
Off the Air:
Nearly 100 radio stations in Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana were knocked off the air by Katrina, their studios damaged by the floods (upper row). In a rare act of cooperation among competitors, Clear Channel and Entercom created a network to provide emergency information to more than 50 stations along the Gulf Coast. Staffers from competing stations worked together around the clock to report the latest news (lower row).
TV coverage of hurricane survivors in desperate conditions in New Orleans shocked the world and created a major political scandal. Network correspondents expressed their outrage on the air and sharply criticized the government's poor response.
Local television crews managed to stay on the air despite extensive damage to their equipment. This monitor and cell phone are from a WDSU-TV news van that was damaged in the flood.
Chinese government control over the Internet increased dramatically as U.S. corporations cooperated in censoring information, blocking political blogs and revealing user information that led to the arrest of dissidents. Tibetans protested the launch of a censored version of Google's search engine (right) in February 2006. Other nations also moved to limit their citizens' access to the Internet.
NEWBLO_171001_356.JPG: Shocked Jock:
After years of outrageous and sometimes offensive comments on his syndicated CBS radio show, Don Imus went too far when he insulted the Rutgers University womna's basketball team. His racially charged remarks were deemed so offensive that he was fired from both MSNBC, which simulcast the show, and CBS. His comments sparked a debate about free speech and regulation of the public airwaves.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rutgers women's basketball controversy
On April 4, 2007, during a discussion about the NCAA Women's Basketball Championship, Imus characterized the Rutgers University women's basketball team players as "rough girls," commenting on their tattoos. His executive producer Bernard McGuirk responded by referring to them as "hardcore hos". The discussion continued with Imus describing the women as "nappy-headed hoes" and McGuirk remarking that the two teams looked like the "jigaboos versus the wannabes" mentioned in Spike Lee's film, School Daze, apparently referring to the two teams' differing appearances.
NEWBLO_171001_359.JPG: Virginia Tech
While covering the shocking massacre of 32 people at Virginia Tech, NBC News found itself in the middle of a media firestorm. NBC received a package from the killer two days after the shooting containing photographs and video. NBC shared the "multimedia manifesto" with law enforcement, and aired carefully selected excerpts that night. But Virginia Tech students and the victims' families criticized NBC for publicizing the killer's video confession.
NEWBLO_171001_360.JPG: Cell Phone Video:
Jamal Albarghouti, a graduate student at Virginia Tech, was walking across campus when he heard gunshots. He used this cell phone (right) to capture the chaotic scene as police responded. He then downloaded his video to the I-Report section of CNN's Web site. By 2007, user-generated content such as Albarghouti's video was becoming increasingly important to news organizations.
NEWBLO_171001_365.JPG: Opposing Voices:
Barack Obama's 2009 inauguration electrified conservative talk radio, which rallied listeners against the new president's agenda. Syndicated talk radio hosts such as Glenn Beck (right), Rush Limbaugh, Sean Hannity, Michael Savage and Laura Ingraham helped push stories critical to the Obama administration into the mainstream media. Beck and Hannity also reached TV audiences through their Fox News Channel programs.
NEWBLO_171001_367.JPG: Bin Laden Killed:
The killing of 9/11 mastermind Osama bin Laden was the top news story of 2011. Most Americans learned the news on television. Rumors spread first on social media sites such as Twitter, but the death of the world's most-wanted terrorist in a US raid on his Pakistani hideout wasn't confirmed until President Barack Obama's late-night television address on May 1.
NEWBLO_171001_371.JPG: Social Media Explodes:
Twitter, Facebook, YouTube other social networking Web sites changed the way news is spread. Breaking news in 2009 about Iranian election protests and the death of entertainer Michael Jackson spread quickly through social media sites, highlighting the growing power of social networking for reporting and sharing news. Traditional news media used these sites to get eyewitness information and to connect with new audiences.
NEWBLO_171001_374.JPG: News Radio Gets Personal:
As more Americans got their news online, mobile devices are bringing radio into the age of the app. Starting in 2013, news radio got a personal touch with mobile apps that tailor content to individual listeners. Inspired by the music streaming services Spotify and Pandora, apps such as Rivet News Radio, NPR One (right) and Newsbeat use algorithms to learn what listeners like, providing them with a customized blend of local, national and international news.
NEWBLO_171001_377.JPG: Marathon Bombing:
When two bombs exploded near the finish line of the Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013, killing thee and injuring hundreds, reporters scrambled to cover the story. CBS News won an Emmy for its live coverage (right), but a few news outlets, including CNN and Fox News, made serious errors such as wrongly reporting arrests and misidentifying suspects. The missteps drew criticism from the White House and the FBI and raised questions about media reliability in the era of instant news.
NEWBLO_171001_381.JPG: Social Networking Fuels Arab Spring:
Protesters using social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter accelerated revolution in the Arab world by rallying citizens and coordinating anti-government protests. The governments of Tunisia, Egypt and Libya were overthrown in 2011, and Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi was killed. Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak shut down the Internet in an unsuccessful bid to suppress communication and media coverage. He later resigned.
NEWBLO_171001_384.JPG: Partnerships Boost Local Radio News:
Short on staff and funding, public radio stations are teaming up with other news outlets to expand local coverage. A 2013 merger between St. Louis Public Radio and the St. Louis Beacon news site fueled in-depth reporting on protests in Ferguson, Mo., after black teen Michael Brown was killed by a white police officer in 2014. St. Louis Public Radio's Stephanie Lecci and Nancy Fowler used this press pass and notebook (right) to cover the protests. The rubber pellets are from a police stun grenade used to disperse crowds.
NEWBLO_171001_394.JPG: Missing Flight:
On March 8, 2014, Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 disappeared during a routine flight from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing with 239 people on board. As authorities searched for clues, cable news networks gave the story wall-to-wall coverage. The mystery captivated viewers for weeks. But critics accused some networks of sensationalizing the tragedy with wild speculation and conspiracy theories to boost ratings and fill airtime.
NEWBLO_171001_396.JPG: Sports Scandals:
The website TMZ is known for celebrity news and gossip -- and for paying for scoops. But in 2014, two blockbuster sports scandals sealed its reputation for breaking news. In April, TMZ posted a recording of Los Angeles Clippers owner Donald Sterling (right) making racist remarks, which sparked protests and prompted the NBA to ban him for life. In September, Baltimore Ravens running back Ray Rice (lower right, with wife Janet Palmer) was suspended from the NFL after TMZ posted a video of him knocking out Palmer in a hotel elevator. His suspension was later overturned.
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