DC -- U.S. Capitol (interior) -- National Statuary Hall:
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CAPNSH_170828_001.JPG: Barry Goldwater Statue
Artist: Deborah Copenhaver Fellows
Location: National Statuary Hall
This statue of Barry Goldwater was given to the National Statuary Hall Collection by Arizona in 2015.
Barry Goldwater served five terms in the United States Senate representing Arizona and was the 1964 Republican candidate for President of the United States. Author of The Conscience of a Conservative (1960), he is widely recognized as the founder of the modern conservative movement.
He was born Barry Morris Goldwater on January 1, 1909, in Phoenix, which was then the capital of the Arizona Territory. He attended Phoenix public schools, graduated from Staunton Military Academy in Virginia, and studied at the University of Arizona in Tucson for a year. In 1929 he left college to work in the family department store, Goldwater's, which was the largest in Phoenix. There he established a five-day work week and improved employees' benefits. He took over the business upon his father's death in 1930. Around this time he also developed a life-long interest in aviation and became a pilot.
In 1934 he married Margaret Johnson, with whom he had four children; his son Barry Jr. would be elected a U.S. Representative from California in 1969, becoming the first person to serve in the House while his father was in the Senate. In 1985, Margaret passed away; seven years later he married Susan Shaffer Wechsler.
During the Second World War Goldwater served as a pilot in the U.S. Army Air Force in the Asiatic Theater from August 1941 to November 1945, flying chiefly between the United States and India but also crossing the Himalayas to deliver supplies to China. He joined the Air Force Reserve after the war and founded the Arizona Air National Guard, which he desegregated two years earlier than the rest of the U.S. military. In 1967 he retired with the rank of major general, having flown 165 types of aircraft.
After the war, Goldwater served from 1948 to 1950 on an Indian Affairs advisory committee for the Department of the Interior. In 1949 he won a seat on the Phoenix city council, launching his career in public service. Three years later, in 1952, he won his first of two consecutive terms in the United States Senate, where he gained national prominence as a speaker for conservative causes. He supported numerous pieces of civilrights legislation but in 1964 voted against the final version of the Civil Rights Act because he believed it too intrusive upon the rights of states and individuals. Also in that year he won the Republican nomination for the presidency. He was defeated by incumbent Lyndon B. Johnson, but Arizonans returned him to the Senate in 1968, 1974, and 1980; he chose not to seek re-election in 1986.
In 1996, after he suffered a massive stroke, his family announced that he was in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Barry Goldwater died on May 29, 1998, at the age of 89 in his home in Paradise Valley, Arizona.
Goldwater was recognized with numerous awards and honors, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1986 and the Langley Gold Medal from the Smithsonian Institution in 1987. Buildings and monuments named for him include the Visitor Center at the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs and a terminal at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport. In 1986, Congress established the Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship and Excellence in Education Program to assist college sophomores and juniors studying science, mathematics, and engineering.
The bronze statue depicts Goldwater as a man in his fifties or sixties, during the time he was a United States Senator. Wearing a suit with cowboy boots and a southwestern bolo tie, he stands in a casual pose as if in mid-conversation, gesturing with his right hand; his left hand is hooked in the pocket of his pants. The self base of the statue has two levels, suggestive of the uneven, rocky landscape of the Arizona desert.
The pedestal of Juparana Florence granite supports the statue. On its front is inscribed "BARRY GOLDWATER / 1909–1998 / ARIZONA."
A panel formed by the Arizona Historical Advisory Commission selected sculptor and Arizona resident Deborah Copenhaver Fellows (1948– ) to undertake this commission. An avid horse enthusiast and accomplished rider, she is best known for her small bronzes on western themes. She has also completed portrait statues of several notable figures, including singer Bing Crosby, businessman Adolph Coors, and philanthropist James Irvine. Fellows sculpted Vietnam Veterans memorials located in Missoula, Montana, and Spokane, Washington, as well as the Korean War Veterans Memorial at the state capitol in Olympia, Washington. She has been a member of the National Sculpture Society since 2008.
The above was from https://www.aoc.gov/explore-capitol-campus/art/barry-goldwater-statue
CAPNSH_170828_009.JPG: Lewis Cass
CAPNSH_170828_037.JPG: Gutzon Borglum
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum (March 25, 1867 – March 6, 1941) was an American artist and sculptor. He is most associated with his creation of the Mount Rushmore National Memorial at Mount Rushmore, South Dakota. He was associated with other public works of art, including a bust of Abraham Lincoln exhibited in the White House by Theodore Roosevelt and now held in the United States Capitol Crypt in Washington, D.C..
CAPNSH_170828_050.JPG: Brigham Young
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Brigham Young June 1, 1801 – August 29, 1877) was an American religious leader, politician, and settler. He was the second president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from 1847 until his death in 1877. He founded Salt Lake City and he served as the first governor of the Utah Territory. Young also led the foundings of the precursors to the University of Utah and Brigham Young University.
Young had many nicknames, among the most popular being "American Moses" (alternatively, the "Modern Moses" or "Mormon Moses"), because, like the biblical figure, Young led his followers, the Mormon pioneers, in an exodus through a desert, to what they saw as a promised land. Young was dubbed by his followers the "Lion of the Lord" for his bold personality and was also commonly called "Brother Brigham" by Latter-day Saints. Young was a polygamist, instituted a church ban against conferring the priesthood on men of black African descent, and participated in the Utah War and the Mountain Meadows massacre.
CAPNSH_170828_144.JPG: Study for The Old House of Representatives, c 1821
Samuel F. B. Morse
Morse made this perspective study in preparation for his nine-by-eleven foot painting of the House of Representatives. He was given a room directly off the Hall in which to work.
CAPNSH_170828_160.JPG: Thomas Edison Statue
Artist: Alan Cottrill
Location: National Statuary Hall
This statue of Thomas Edison was given to the National Statuary Hall Collection by Ohio in 2016.
Born on February 11, 1847, to a middle-class family in Ohio, Thomas Alva Edison became one of the world's most celebrated and prolific inventors, amassing over a thousand patents during his lifetime. As an entrepreneur and businessman, he used mass-production techniques to ensure that his inventions spread around the world, bringing electric power and light, motion pictures, and sound recordings to millions.
Throughout his childhood, Edison was fascinated with scientific experiments. Between the ages of 16 and 20, while working as a telegraph operator, he decided to become an inventor. He received his first patent, for an electric vote recorder, in 1869. Subsequent profitable successes with stockticker and telegraph equipment allowed him to create a new type of facility in Menlo Park, New Jersey, in 1876. Consisting of a main laboratory, glass house, carpentry and machine shops, smithy, and other facilities, it was the precursor of the modern industrial research and development (R & D) laboratory; at its peak in the 1880s, it would employ as many as 60 experimenters, chemists, machinists, engineers, draftsmen, and support staff.
The first major invention at the facility was a carbon microphone that improved the audibility of telephone transmissions. Another project under way at the time was directed toward improving the telegraph repeater, which recorded and replayed messages composed of dots and dashes. Inspired to combine elements of the telephone with the repeater, Edison in 1877 recorded sound as indentations—first on paraffin-coated paper, then on wax cylinders, and finally on tinfoil. When the indentations were moved beneath a stylus, the sounds were reproduced. The phonograph brought Edison worldwide fame, and the press began to refer to him as a "wizard"; it would also remain his personal favorite of all his inventions.
In 1878, Edison began work on what would be his most far-reaching accomplishment: the largescale commercial distribution of electric light and power. Although electric light bulbs had existed since 1802, none had been long lasting or economical enough for widespread practical use. Edison's new idea was to use a highresistance filament rather than the low-resistance ones favored by other inventors, and in 1879, after thousands of experiments, his workshop produced a bulb that burned for 40 hours. Further experimentation with filament materials yielded one that would burn for a thousand. In 1887, Edison moved his “invention factory” from Menlo Park to a new, larger facility in West Orange, New Jersey. A major effort there concentrated on what Edison described as “an instrument which does for the eye what the phonograph does for the ear, which is the recording and reproduction of things in motion”; his Kinetograph and Kinetoscope would open the way for today's film industry. Other work in the following decades included phonograph improvements, dictating machines, a fluoroscope, and the nickel-iron storage battery, a safety lamp for miners, and processes for manufacturing various chemicals. In the last years of his life he tried to develop a process for producing rubber from native American plant material.
Edison died of complications from diabetes on October 18, 1931, at his home in West Orange, and his remains are buried behind the home.
Edison received numerous awards during and after his lifetime for his inventions and his service to his nation and humanity. The first, in 1881, was a designation by the French Republic as an Officer of the Legion of Honor. It was followed by Italy's Matteucci Medal for physics in 1887 and election to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1890. In addition to other international and professional awards, he was honored in 1920 with the Navy Distinguished Service Medal for his work on defensive weapons during the first World War, and in 1928 he received the Congressional Gold Medal. Fittingly, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) have named high awards after Edison.
In this statue, sculptor Alan Cottrill depicts a middle-aged Edison wearing a typical work suit, standing in a relaxed position with a bent right knee, and holding aloft the invention for which he is most widely celebrated—the electric light bulb. Assuming his characteristic stance with his left hand in his pocket, he raises the inverted cone-shaped bulb known as the Edison light bulb in his right hand; a similar bulb appears in a 1911 photograph of Edison. The pose evokes the Statue of Liberty. Above all, Cottrill sought to capture Edison's "energy and sense of accomplishment," aiming to convey his tireless activity. The bronze statue, inscribed EDISON on its self-base, stands on a speckled mahogany-colored granite pedestal with the simple inscription OHIO.
Alan Cottrill was born in 1952 and raised in the Appalachian region of Ohio. In 1990 he discovered his affinity for working in clay, so he sold his business interests and dedicated himself to sculpture, studying in New York City at the Art Students League and the National Academy of Design. He also studied Human Anatomy at Columbia Medical Center and took numerous trips to Europe to study the world's greatest sculptures in person.
In 1996 he and lifelong friend Charles Leasure founded the Coopermill Bronzeworks casting foundry in Zanesville, Ohio. To date they have cast well over 500 of Cottrill's statues and hundreds of other sculptors' works. Cottrill's works are displayed throughout the nation at libraries, universities, memorial sites, and other venues. Among his subjects are Presidents George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt; football coach Woody Hayes; Olympian Jesse Owens; Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton; the Marquis de Lafayette; and figures honoring military personnel and war dogs, coal miners, firefighters, and Native Americans.
The above was from https://www.aoc.gov/explore-capitol-campus/art/thomas-edison-statue
CAPNSH_170828_187.JPG: John Sevier Statue
Artist: Belle Kinney and Leopold F. Scholz
Location: National Statuary Hall
This statue of John Sevier was given to the National Statuary Hall Collection by Tennessee in 1931.
John Sevier was born in Rockingham County, Virginia, on September 23, 1745. Searching for available land he could afford, he moved west in 1772 and served as a militia captain under George Washington in Lord Dunmore's War. A lieutenant colonel in the trans-Allegheny forces during the Revolution, he was commended for his services at Kings Mountain in 1780. Consequently, in March 1785 he was elected governor of the independent State of Franklin, a portion of North Carolina where settlers desired statehood. North Carolina declared the State of Franklin in revolt, subdued it with force, and ceded it to Congress. Subsequently, Sevier was elected to the North Carolina Senate in 1789, received a full pardon, and was restored to his status of brigadier general.
He retired to his plantation and was appointed trustee of Washington College and Blount College (now the University of Tennessee). Because of his military renown, he was elected the first governor of Tennessee (1796–1801 and 1803–1809), state senator (1809–1811), and a member of the U.S. House of Representatives in 1811. He died on September 24, 1815, while serving as commissioner to survey the boundary between Georgia and the land of the Creek Indians in Alabama. His remains were later reinterred in Knoxville, Tennessee.
The above was from https://www.aoc.gov/explore-capitol-campus/art/john-sevier-statue
CAPNSH_170828_196.JPG: Robert Fulton Statue
Artist: Howard Roberts
Location: National Statuary Hall
This statue of Robert Fulton was given to the National Statuary Hall Collection by Pennsylvania in 1889.
Robert Fulton was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, on November 14, 1765. His early education was limited, but he displayed considerable artistic talent and inventiveness. At the age of 17 he moved to Philadelphia, where he established himself as a painter. Advised to go abroad because of ill health, he moved to London in 1786. His lifelong interest in scientific and engineering developments, especially in the application of steam engines, supplanted art as a career. Fulton secured English patents for machines with a wide variety of functions. He was also interested in canal systems. In 1797, European conflicts led Fulton to begin work on weapons against piracy, including submarines, mines and torpedoes.
He soon moved to France, where he worked on canal systems. In 1800 he built a successful "diving boat," which he named the Nautilus. Neither the French nor the English were sufficiently interested to induce Fulton to continue his submarine design. His interest in building a steamboat continued. In 1802 Fulton contracted with Robert Livingston to construct a steamboat for use on the Hudson River; over the next four years he built prototypes in Europe.
He returned to New York in 1806. On August 17, 1807, the Clermont, Fulton's first American steamboat, left New York for Albany, thus inaugurating the first commercial steamboat service in the world. Fulton died on February 24, 1815, and is buried in Old Trinity Churchyard, New York City.
The above was from https://www.aoc.gov/explore-capitol-campus/art/robert-fulton-statue
CAPNSH_170828_204.JPG: Jefferson Davis Statue
Artist: Augustus Lukeman
Location: National Statuary Hall
This statue of Jefferson Davis was given to the National Statuary Hall Collection by Mississippi in 1931.
Jefferson Davis, born June 3, 1808, in Christian (now Todd) County, Kentucky, was raised on his family's small plantation near Woodville, Mississippi. Through the generosity of his older brother Joseph, he studied at St. Thomas College, Washington County, Kentucky, and at Transylvania University before graduating from the United States Military Academy in 1828. He served in the Army until 1835, when he became a planter.
He was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1845 but resigned the following year to command the "Mississippi Rifles" in the Mexican War. From 1847 to 1851 he served as a U.S. senator. As secretary of war for President Franklin Pierce (1853-1857) he strengthened the Army and coast defenses, directed railroad surveys, and supervised the enlarging of the U.S. Capitol and the construction of a water viaduct in Washington, D.C. He re-entered the Senate in 1857 and was recognized as a spokesman for the South. When Mississippi seceded, Davis resigned and accepted command of Mississippi's military forces. Hoping to be appointed commander of all southern armies, he found himself instead elected president of the Confederate States. When the Confederacy surrendered, Davis was captured and imprisoned in Fort Monroe for two years, indicted for treason (but never brought to trial), and finally released on bond in 1867.
After travel abroad and a few unsuccessful business ventures, he made his home at "Beauvior," in Biloxi, Mississippi, and wrote Rise and Fall of the Confederated States. Jefferson Davis died in New Orleans on December 6, 1889.
The above was from https://www.aoc.gov/explore-capitol-campus/art/jefferson-davis-statue
CAPNSH_170828_231.JPG: Huey Pierce Long Statue
Artist: Charles Keck
Location: National Statuary Hall
This statue of Huey Pierce Long was given to the National Statuary Hall Collection by Louisiana in 1941.
Huey Long, "The Kingfish," was born in Winnfield, Louisiana, on August 30, 1893, to a poor farm family of strong religious convictions. He attended the local public schools. Although he was eager to attend college, there was no money; at the age of 16 he was on his own as a door-to-door salesman. He studied law for six months at the University of Oklahoma in 1912; he later finished the course at Tulane University and was admitted to the bar in 1915.
He quickly entered politics and was elected state railroad commissioner in 1917. An energetic campaigner, Long became popular for his grassroots oratory. Defeated for the governorship in 1924, he was elected in 1928, campaigning on a platform of free schoolbooks, paved roads and improved hospitals. As governor, he enlarged the state university at Baton Rouge to accommodate more students. His rise to power during the Depression years capitalized on the people's needs. His bold use of authority and state funds nearly led to his impeachment in 1929, but proceedings collapsed in the state senate. Elected to the U.S. Senate in 1930, he did not take his seat until January 1932. His proposed "Share the Wealth" program, which promised every family $5,000 and the confiscation of large estates, made him a presidential prospect for 1936.
At the height of his power, while visiting the state house in Baton Rouge, Long was assassinated by Dr. Carl Weiss. He died on September 10, 1935, and is buried on the grounds of the state capitol.
The above was from https://www.aoc.gov/explore-capitol-campus/art/huey-pierce-long-statue
CAPNSH_170828_295.JPG: Car of History Clock
The marble Car of History by Carlo Franzoni is located above the north door to National Statuary Hall (the Old Hall of the House of Representatives).
Artist: Marble by Carlo Franzoni; Clock works by Simon Willard.
Location: National Statuary Hall
Clio, the Greek Muse of History, is depicted standing in her winged chariot, or car. The car is traveling from west to east and her body is facing south, with her left foot resting on the edge of the car; her head is turned to look over her right shoulder, observing the events of the past. Her left hand holds a book (the modern version of the scroll or tablet with which she was depicted in classical times). Her right hand rests upon the book, and the position of her fingers suggests that at some time she held a pen; several early books and articles specifically refer to her holding one, but no photographs have been found that show it, and its loss or removal does not appear to have been documented.
On the front of the car is a winged Nike, the goddess of victory, who blows a trumpet of fame that she holds in her right hand; in her left she holds a palm branch, a symbol of victory or peace traditionally associated with her. A profile bust of George Washington appears on the side of the car below Clio's foot.
The car's wheel is the face of a clock, with the black painted roman numerals set within a gilded band; it rests on a partial globe decorated with the zodiac signs Sagittarius, Aries and Aquarius (comprising the months that the Congress was in session but, surprisingly, out of sequence). The sculptor's inscription, "C. Franzoni Faciebat 1819," appears on the top edge of the car's side above the wheel and can be seen only from above.
The statue was carved from at least five pieces of Carrara marble, chiseled separately and then joined together with iron bars covered in plaster. It stands about seven and a half feet tall, with Clio depicted at approximately human size. The brass and steel mechanism of the clock is housed in a wooden box at the rear of the sculpture and is signed "Simon Willard and Son." Samuel F. B. Morse's 1822 painting depicting the House of Representatives chamber shows a clock-face as part of the completed sculpture, but records indicate that the current Willard clock was installed around 1835.
The Car of History was created by Carlo Franzoni, born into a family of sculptors in Cararra, Italy. His older brother, Giuseppe, was a sculptor who had come to the United States and worked at the Capitol until his untimely death, and in 1816 Carlo came to take his place at the government's request. Franzoni family lore maintains that the model for Clio was Carlo's niece (likely Giuseppe's daughter). Franzoni completed the Car of History shortly before his death from heart complications in May 1819.
A design for the sculpture first appears in an August 1815 drawing by architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe. The drawing shows his proposal for rebuilding the former Hall of the House of Representatives, which was destroyed when British troops burned the Capitol in 1814 during the War of 1812. Latrobe's drawing of the sculpture differs from Franzoni's completed version in several ways: that car is traveling from east to west; Clio is seated rather than standing, with her left leg extended forward over the car’s wing; and she holds a mirror in addition to a pen. Latrobe may have been inspired by Empire mantel clocks, which also feature Roman-style chariots with clock face wheels and are often combined with mythological figures; however, Latrobe's creative solution of literally wedding time with history on a monumental scale appears to be unprecedented.
The statue and the clock have both undergone periodic restoration, and conservation has consisted chiefly of removing grime and stains. Some small repairs and replacements have also been made to the clock mechanism.
The above was from https://www.aoc.gov/explore-capitol-campus/art/car-history-clock
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