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SIPGPO_130504_01.JPG: John C. Calhoun, c 1844-45
SIPGPO_130504_11.JPG: Joseph, Hin-Mah-Too-Yah-Lat-Kekht, Chief of the Nez Perce Indians, 1889
Olin Levi Warner
SIPGPO_130509_002.JPG: Samuel Woodhouse, 1821-1904
The son of a naval officer, Samuel Woodhouse was trained as a physician at the University of Pennsylvania and subsequently served as the medical officer in a succession of organizations that included the U.S. Army, a transatlantic steamship line, and the Eastern State Penitentiary. As an army officer, he served on several exploratory missions to the American West, as well as Central America. He performed the first survey of birds in the Oklahoma Territory and was the first naturalist to survey the Arizona region, where he discovered several hitherto unknown specimens, including a toad (Bufo woodhousii) that was named after him. He was a member of the American Academy of Natural Sciences, and his journals are a repository of firsthand observations of the natural and human eulogies of the American West.
by Edward Bowers, 1857
SIPGPO_130509_077.JPG: John Marshall, 1755-1835
Born Prince William (now Fauquier) County, Virginia
John Marshall, the fourth chief justice of the United States, established the concept of judicial review -- in which the Supreme Court could pronounce a law of Congress as unconstitutional -- and strengthened the idea of an independent federal judiciary. In cases brought to the Court between 1810 and 1824 -- years in which the Marshall Court enjoyed great stability and harmony -- Marshall used the Court's judicial review to nullify state laws violating constitutional restraints of state power. The effect of Marshall's long tenure as chief justice (1801–35) was to strengthen the Court, the Constitution, and the federal government. The Court became a preeminent interpreter of the Constitution, and the federal government's enumerated powers were given a broad interpretation, and made superior to those of the states.
Cephas Thompson painted a portrait of Marshall from life in Richmond, as well as six replicas for admirers, two years after Marshall presided at the trial of Aaron Burr for treason.
by Cephas Thompson, 1809-10
SIPGPO_130509_090.JPG: Thomas L. McKenney, 1785-1859
Thomas L. McKenney was one of the most important figures in setting and implementing early governmental policy toward American Indians. He was superintendent of Indian trade from 1816 to 1822 and later superintendent of Indian affairs (1824-30), a position created in the War Department. McKenney sought to integrate, or at least reconcile, Indians and American culture thorugh education. He helped secure the passage of the Indian Civilization Act of 1819 and, more ominously, the Indian Removal Act (1830), which confiscated Indian lands and forced tribes to relocate west of the Mississippi. McKenney claimed that the brutality of the "Trail of Tears" was due to the callousness of President Andrew Jackson, not his fault or that of the bureau. Jackson fired McKenney for insubordination. While in office, McKenney initiated a major ethnological project, collecting books, manuscripts, artifacts, and paintings to document the history of the North American Indians.
by Charles Loring Elliot, 1856
SIPGPO_130509_102.JPG: Thurlow Weed, 1797-1882
From the 1830s until the Civil War Thurlow Weed was a dominant force in New York and American party politics, described by Henry Adams as "the model of political management and patient address." He entered politics through newspaper editing and writing, first becoming a supporter of New York governor DeWitt Clinton, and then rising to de facto leader of the Whig Party, signaled by effectively making William Seward governor of New York in 1838 and William Henry Harrison president in 1840. Weed dispensed favors and was not adverse to outright bribery, although he himself refused to profit from corruption. He spearheaded Zachary Taylor's successful candidacy for president in 1848, but Taylor's early death ruined Weed's plans for maintaining the unity of the Whig Party. Weed then moved to the Republican Party, but his influence declined
by Chester Harding, c 1843
SIPGPO_130509_123.JPG: Juliana Westray Wood, 1778-1838
Actress Juliana Westray made her stage debut at Boston's Haymarket Theater in 1797. By 1804 she had joined William Wood's Chestnut Street Theatre Company in Philadelphia and also married Wood. The company performed a repertoire of serious drama and literate, witty comedy, and for years she was its favored actress, best known for her performances in Macbeth and School for Scandal. Rembrandt Peale painted her portrait around 1811 when she was at the height of her career. With his respectable, highbrow tastes, William Wood found it difficult to adapt as American culture became more populist and sensationalist by the 1830s. In particular, he disliked the star system, preferring an ensemble cast. During the late 1820s, the Woods operated the theater themselves, but eventually they had to close its doors.
by Rembrandt Peale, c 1811
SIPGPO_130509_175.JPG: Ralph Izard, 1742-1804
South Carolina planter Ralph Izard is seen here at the age of twelve, just before his departure for England to begin his formal education. He had recently inherited his family estate, the Elms, upon the death of both parents. In 1776, Izard and his wife, Alice DeLancey, moved to Paris, where he assisted in diplomatic efforts and in securing funding to build ships for the war against England. Returning to Charleston with his family after the Revolution, Izard was a member of the Continental Congress and served as one of South Carolina's first United States senators. A defender of the institution of slavery and an architect of the federal court system, Izard was also one of the founders of the College of Charleston.
This rare full-length portrait by Jeremiah Theus shows how successfully the Swiss-born artist had mastered the poses and settings of English portraiture after settling in Charleston.
by Jeremiah Theus, 1754
SIPGPO_130509_190.JPG: William Byrd II, 1674-1744
William Byrd II inherited a great deal of property in Virginia that, together with the force of his personality and his own accomplishments, made him one of the most prominent and powerful men in the colony. He was educated and practiced law in England and traveled extensively there and on the Continent. Before returning to America, he commissioned this stylist portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller, the principal painter to the British monarch. Byrd was a successful tobacco planter and served for many years on the Virginia Council. In 1728 he played a lead role in surveying the Virginia-North Carolina boundary line. One result of this word was Byrd's book, The History of the Dividing Line Run in the Year 1728, a colorful account of Virginia's history and its flora and fauna. Late in life he built Westover, a Georgian mansion on the James River, where he housed his collection of thirty portraits of family and other persons of note.
by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1700-1704
SIPGPO_130509_201.JPG: William Shirley, 1694-1771
Appointed colonial governor of Massachusetts in 1741, William Shirley spent much of the next fifteen years in military and diplomatic engagements with the French. After war broke out between England and France in 1744, Shirley won an important victory by orchestrating a successful attack on the French stronghold at Louisbourg, Nova Scotia. This portrait by distinguished English painter Thomas Hudson-with a background that recalls this famous naval conquest-was painted in London while Shirley was participating in boundary negotiations with the French following the war's end in 1748. In 1755, at the outset of the French and Indian War, King George II promoted Shirley to commander of British forces in North America. He lost this position and his governorship a year later, however, after failing to halt French advances.
Thomas Hudson, 1750
SIPGPO_130509_215.JPG: Lewis Morris, 1726-1798
As third lord of the manor of Morrisania (today the Bronx), Lewis Morris possessed thousands of acres of land worked, in the feudal tradition, by tenant farmers and slaves. His assets increased when he married Mary Walton, the daughter of a successful merchant, in 1749 (just about the time that John Wollaston, a trained English artist, arrived on the scene).
Morris entered into New York's rough-and-tumble provincial politics in 1768, and was one of the bold ones who pushed cautious New York toward rebellion. Chosen as a delegate to the Second Continental Congress, Morris was on duty as brigadier general in the Westchester Militia when the Declaration of Independence was adopted, but he returned to Philadelphia and signed the document in September.
by John Wallaston, c 1750
SIPGPO_130509_226.JPG: Cunne Shote, lifedates unknown
Cherokee leader Cunne Shote, determined to end hostilities with the British, traveled with two other chiefs to London in 1762. The British press described the Cherokee delegation as "well made men, near six feet high, well dressed in their own country habit . . . [with painted faces and] heads adorned with shells, feathers, ear-rings and other ornaments." Their exotic appearance and the political implications of their visit inspired the painted likeness on which this rare mezzotint is based. Imaginatively depicting Cunne Shote in his native land, the portrait testifies to the favorable outcome of the Cherokees' diplomatic efforts. The chief's prominent display of a silver gorget and medals from King George III proclaim Cherokee loyalty to the British Crown, an alliance that continued into the American Revolution.
by James McArdell, after Francis Parsons, c 1762
SIPGPO_130509_237.JPG: Alfred, Lord Tennyson, modeled by 1899
William Ordway Partridge
SIPGPO_130912_02.JPG: Thomas Sully
Daniel La Motte, 1812-13
SIPGPO_130912_11.JPG: Benjamin West
SIPGPO_130912_17.JPG: Samuel F. B. Morse, 1831
SIPGPO_131209_01.JPG: Carlos Santana, born 1947
Iconic rock guitarist Carlos Santana became famous in the late 1960s and early 1970s with the Santana Blues Band, which created a percussive sound blending salsa, rock, blues, and jazz. In 1969 they played a legendary eleven-minute set at Woodstock-"Soul Sacrifice"-and their singles "Evil Ways" and "Black Magic Woman" became solid Billboard hits. Santana was captured in this early stage of his fame by photographer Herb Greene, who was himself part of the 1960s San Francisco art scene and a friend of many of the era's rock musicians. Santana's career faded until the late 1990s, when he enjoyed a resurgence with Supernatural (1999), which won eleven Grammy Awards, including Album of the Year. Inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1998, he is credited today with pioneering a fusion style that shaped the concept of global music.
Herb Greene, 1972 (printed 2005)
SIPGPO_131209_18.JPG: Franklin and the Nurturing of Science in Early America:
A popular debate in the eighteenth century was whether America would equal or surpass Europe in the arts and sciences. In his "Verses on the Prospect of Planting Arts and Learning in America," the noted British philosopher Bishop George Berkeley viewed the course of civilization moving from east to west, from the Near East to Greece, to Rome, to Western Europe, and eventually across the Atlantic to the New World. In a 1771 commencement poem, "The Rising Glory of America," American writer and jurist Hugh Henry Brackenridge predicted a coming golden age for his country. At the same time, European intellectuals and scientists like the French naturalist the Comte de Buffon, who viewed history as moving backwards in the New World, argued in his Natural History of Man that some aspect of that environment was causing a reversion to barbarism and degeneration. Thomas Jefferson, while ambassador to France, responded directly to Buffon's accusations in his Notes on the State of Virginia. Americans proudly pointed to Benjamin Franklin's discoveries in electricity; David Rittenhouse's achievements in optics and astronomy; Charles Willson Peale's museum of natural history and his exhumation of the mastodon, "the largest of territorial beings"; John John Jeffries's balloon flight and meteorological observations. These men were pioneers of what many contemporaries viewed as the "Rising Glory" of American science.
SIPGPO_131209_22.JPG: Thomas Jefferson, 1743-1826
Born Shadwell (now Albemarle County) Virginia
In 1780, Thomas Jefferson, governor of Virginia, received queries from the Marquis de Barbé, secretary of the French Legation, seeking information about the state. Jefferson, an inveterate observer of all phenomena, organized his notes and sent an elaborate response focusing on Virginia's natural history -- its minerals, vegetables, and animals. He was eager to refute the French naturalists, specifically the Comte de Buffon, who believed that animals degenerated in America. Jefferson sent out inquiries, requesting the heaviest weights of American specimens, "from the mouse to the mammoth." When he received numerous requests for copies of his response, Jefferson decided to print the work, but did not publish it until 1785, when he was minister to France. Notes on the State of Virginia, Jefferson's only published book, became famous not only because of its author, but because, as his biographer Dumas Malone noted, it revealed a "man of most unusual and diverse talent."
The young American artist Mather Brown produced this first likeness of Jefferson in Paris.
Mather Brown, 1786
SIPGPO_131209_29.JPG: Charles Willson Peale, 1741-1827
Born Queen Anne's County, Maryland
Charles Willson Peale is best remembered as an artist, but he was also the proprietor of the first important museum in America, the Philadelphia Museum of art and natural history. In his mid-forties, after painting hundreds of portraits of the powerful and elite, Peale began a lifelong undertaking: the creation of a new museum designed for a republic. While science museums in Europe placed their specimens in drawers, pinned flat to white cloth, Peale's museum, designed to involve large numbers of Americans in an educational experience, presented them to visitors in lifelike situations, labeled with their scientific names and ordered in the Linnaean classification. Anyone who could pay the twenty-five-cent admission fee could enter, unlike European institutions, which required special application. Peale also directed the first scientific expedition in America, which exhumed and assembled a mastodon skeleton, helping scientists prove the existence of prehistoric animals.
Three years after completing this self-portrait, Peale gave up portrait painting as his profession to focus on his museum.
Charles Willson Peale, c 1791
SIPGPO_131209_40.JPG: David Rittenhouse, 1732-1796
Born near Germantown, Pennsylvania
A child prodigy who received no formal education, David Rittenhouse became one of early America's most respected scientists and is depicted here as president of the American Philosophical Society. Rittenhouse made his living as a clock- and instrument-maker; his mathematical skills earned him service on commissions determining the boundaries of several states. He constructed two orreries, instruments that accurately depict the motions of the solar system for 5,000 years, backwards and forwards. Rittenhouse achieved international fame when, acting on John Ewing's proposal, he organized the Philosophical Society's participation in an international effort to measure the transit of Venus. This allowed astronomers to more accurately measure distances to celestial objects. Rittenhouse's published observations, along with those of other American scientists, attracted favorable reactions in Europe, bringing a new recognition of American scientific achievement.
Charles Willson Peale, who knew the sitter well, included in this portrait a reflecting telescope that may have been the one Rittenhouse had inherited from Benjamin Franklin.
Charles Willson Peale, 1796
SIPGPO_131209_48.JPG: John Ewing, 1732-1802
Born East Nottingham, Maryland
A Presbyterian minister, John Ewing also taught natural philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania. He nurtured a lifelong fascination with astronomy, contributing articles on the subject to the first American edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica. A member of the American Philosophical Society, Ewing initiated its participation in the international effort in 1769 to observe the transit of Venus, selecting David Rittenhouse to organize the effort. Ewing and Charles Willson Peale, his portraitist, shared political and scientific interests during the years surrounding the American Revolution; Ewing was vice president of the Philosophical Society when Peale became a member in 1786. Peale depicts Ewing in a wig often worn by those in learned professions and an elaborately ruched academic gown. The telescope in the background is a Gregorian reflector of the type sold by W. & S. Jones of London.
Charles Willson Peale, 1788
SIPGPO_131209_57.JPG: Benjamin Franklin, 1706-1790
Born Boston, Massachusetts
Benjamin Franklin, in his day the most famous American in the world, was renowned for his scientific accomplishments as much as for his political and diplomatic triumphs. Known as a "natural philosopher," as scientists were termed in the eighteenth century, Franklin was celebrated for his experiments with electricity, but he also conducted experiments in other areas and invented devices as varied as a stove and bifocal eyeglasses. He also reorganized and expanded the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia and was often the conduit for correspondence between Americans and Europeans who were studying botany, chemistry, physics, and other sciences. By the mid-1780s, when this portrait was created, Franklin was representing the new republic in France, where he was revered for his wit and scientific knowledge.
Joseph Siffred Duplessis, c 1785
SIPGPO_131209_81.JPG: Series 2009A $100 Federal Reserve Note:
The Series 2009A $100 Federal Reserve Note features Joseph Siffred Duplessis's portrait of Benjamin Franklin. Franklin wrote treatises and debated the need for colonial paper money, designed and printed monetary notes, and advocated for the stability of a federal, paper-based currency.
New anti-counterfeiting features for the Series 2009A $100 note include a blue 3-D security ribbon that is woven into, rather than printed on, the paper. Also, a bell in the inkwell to the right of Franklin's face changes colors from copper to green and "The United States of America" is printed in tiny script along the collar of Franklin's jacket.
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