IN -- Indianapolis -- Indiana State Museum:
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- ISM_120811_062.JPG: Time stands still on this siltstone slab. Two sets of footprints left on a tidal flat, quickly buried and gradually becoming stone, capture a fleeting movement in the lives of amphibians that crossed it.
The prints' size and spacing suggest animals 12 to 18 inches long and 6 inches high. Most likely, the two wandering amphibians did not interact, but crossed the silty seashore at different times, in search of a meal. Around them, insect traces indicate the food supply that probably attracted the amphibians. Did the two voyagers ever get their meals? The frozen footprints can only give us tantalizing clues.
- ISM_120811_079.JPG: They were supposed to have reset the Foucault pendulum over night but they hadn't done it.
- ISM_120811_111.JPG: 1915 Deforest Audion.
Lee DeForest's invention of the Audion tube in 1906 produced the first electronic component that could amplify energy sufficiently to transmit sounds, such as the human voice, beyond the dots and dashes of the telegraph.
- ISM_120811_116.JPG: This set-up would have functioned as a state-of-the-art amateur radio station, c. 1922.
- ISM_120811_127.JPG: In 1951 RCA's Pennsylvania labs began work on the RCA CRT, the first truly modern color picture tube and the scientific starting point for the development of the RCA CT-100 color TV. Fewer than 200 prototypes were produced for testing and this tube is one of half a dozen that are known to remain.
- ISM_120811_134.JPG: Pilot Radio's 3" TV was the first post-World War II set that could be purchased for under $100. Elizabeth Williams of Indianapolis received this one as a premium when she bought an automobile from a local dealer.
- ISM_120811_138.JPG: Regency Electronics TR-99 transistor radios, 1960.
Although Regency Electronics surrendered leadership of the transistor radio industry soon after introducing the revolutionary product in 1954, the pioneering Indianapolis company continued to manufacture the radios into the 1960s.
- ISM_120811_154.JPG: Movie Costume from Eight Men Out. Several Hoosiers, including the Reds' Hall of Fame outfielder Eddie Roush of Oakland City, played in the 1919 World Series. None were implicated in the scandal and Roush maintained, bitterly, that his Reds would have won the Series regardless of whether the Sox were throwing games.
- ISM_120811_161.JPG: Prop glove, hat, and baseball from Eight Men Out
- ISM_120811_169.JPG: South Bend Blue Sox movie costume from A League of Their Own, Columbia Pictures, 1992. In 1943, the South Bend Blue Sox became a founding member of the AAGPBL and were one of the only two teams to play in every AAGPBL season. The Sox claimed back-to-back league titles in 1951 and '52 before finishing in last place in 1953 and '54.
- ISM_120811_174.JPG: Prop pair of shoes from A League of Their Own
- ISM_120811_191.JPG: Prozac, 2000. Developed by Indianapolis's Eli Lilly and Company in 1988, Prozac was the most widely prescribed antidepressant until generic equivalents emerged.
- ISM_120811_200.JPG: On November 1, 1954, the world's first commercial transistor radios were distributed for sale. Manufactured by Indianapolis's Regency Electronics in conjunction with Texas Instruments, the Regency TR-1 revolutionized electronics. Transistors made possible smaller appliances that used far less power than those employing vacuum tubes. Today, millions of transistors can be placed on one integrated circuit, or "chip".
The clear TR-1 here is one of three prototypes known to exist. Another is on exhibit at the Smithsonian Institution, while the third is in the Texas Instruments corporate archives. Thanks to Mr. Bret Phillips for the loan of his Regency transistor radio collection.
- ISM_120811_227.JPG: Ernie Pyle: War Reporter:
Ernest Taylor Pyle was born August 3, 1900, near Dana, Indiana. Having studied journalism as Indiana University, he became a cub reporter for the LaPorte Herald, wrote a daily aviation column for the Washington Daily News, and in 1935, became a roving reporter. He spent five years crossing the United States and Central and South America writing human-interest stories.
In 1940, Pyle went to England to report on the Battle of Britain. By 1942, he was covering America's involvement in World War II. During the next three years, battle campaigns took him to North Africa, Italy and the Normandy Beaches in France. In 1945, Pyle accepted what would be his last assignment -- the Pacific Theater. On April 18, 1945, Pyle was killed by sniper fire on the island of Ie Shima. His death silenced the pen of a man whose writing had served as the link between men at the front and their loved ones back home.
- ISM_120811_230.JPG: Ernie Pyle, duffle bag, c. 1943. Ernie Pyle carried this duffle bag with him during World War II. He spent three years covering America's involvement in the war, from North Africa to the Pacific.
- ISM_120811_233.JPG: Underwood Universal Portable typewriter, 1934. During his traveling "Hoosier Vagabond" days before the war, Ernie Pyle used the two-finger system to type his famous human-interest stories on this typewriter.
- ISM_120811_238.JPG: Zippo cigarette lighter, c. 1934-1934, belonging to Ernie Pyle.
- ISM_120811_240.JPG: Olive-green military-issue raincoat, c 1941-1944. This raincoat was given to Ernie Pyle by the men of the 34th Division, Company E, 168th Infantry. The roster of each platoon from the company is handwritten on the lining of the coat along with a drawing of the company's emblem.
- ISM_120811_249.JPG: Strikebreaker's billy club manufactured by Starr Piano Company of Richmond and used in the International Harvester strike of 1940.
- ISM_120811_254.JPG: Labor Pains: Unions Struggle to Organize:
Organized labor gains strength during the Depression as workers unite to protect their jobs and wages. This trend is weaker in Indiana, however, where fiercely independent Hoosiers often view unions as a threat to individual liberty.
Throughout the 1930s, government and industry attempt to squelch labor. In 1932, Inland Steel and U.S. Steel deport thousands of Mexican workers brought in earlier as strikebreakers. When Terra Haute's 1935 general strike closes the city for two days, Governor McNutt invokes martial law.
Unions enjoy little support outside their own ranks -- but membership steadily expands. By 1939, 22 percent of Indiana's non-agricultural workers are unionized. Gradual success in organizing auto and steel workers lays the groundwork for even more rapid growth in the 1940s.
- ISM_120811_261.JPG: John Dillinger wanted poster
- ISM_120811_266.JPG: Brewing Dissent: Applauding Prohibition (briefly):
Indiana cheers the temperance movement. Most Hoosiers endorse its goal of protecting families and communities by banning alcohol. But the reality of Prohibition quickly dims the theory of Prohibition. Drinking its deeply rooted in custom and culture, particularly among German and Irish Hoosiers. Prohibition's social and economic impact quickly erodes support.
Indiana outlaws alcohol in 1917, two years before the Eighteenth Amendment bans liquor nationwide. The Women's Christian Temperance Union and Anti-Saloon League lead the campaign. Local groups such as the Legislative Council of Indiana Women join in, supported by Indiana's governor.
The economic price of Prohibition is steep. Brewing and distilling had been Indiana's third-largest industry. As business dries up, industry leaders lobby to repeal Prohibition, which ends in 1933.
- ISM_120811_275.JPG: Blocks showing creation of sculpture
- ISM_120811_296.JPG: A new exhibition was going in here
- ISM_120811_299.JPG: Sand and Steel: A Call for Conservation:
It took a glacier to carve Lake Michigan, and centuries to mold the gentle dunes along its shore. It takes but a generation of industrial growth to threaten this natural heritage of pristine wetlands. In the early 1900s, a growing middle class that cherishes the shoreline as a vacation spot begins to raise alarms over the ecological impact of Indiana's steel industry.
Business or beaches? Sand or steel? The conflict is bitter, pitting jobs and prosperity against a fragile ecosystem that is an important natural habitat, a favorite vacation spot, and a beloved source of artistic inspiration. For Hoosiers, neighboring Illinois illustrates the benefits of industrial development ... and its steep cost.
Artists and activists rally against the steel industry to dramatize the issue. Indiana continues, nonetheless, to encourage growth in the Lake Michigan steel belt. Yet it also establishes one of the country's best state park systems.
- ISM_120811_306.JPG: Indiana's "Golden Age": Heralding the Hoosier Heartland:
In the arts, literature, and politics, a distinctive voice rings out from the American heartland. Indiana authors captivate readers. Local politicians gain national attention. "Hoosier Group" painters celebrate Indiana's beauty. To a nation exhausted by a bloody civil war and the anxiety of Reconstruction, Indiana's homespun virtues become a healing symbol.
The poet James Whitcomb Riley and the Pulitzer Prize winner Booth Tarkington win national attention during this "golden age," and Indiana writers produce more best-sellers than authors from any other state except New York. The telephone, telegraph, and other new communications media help spread Indiana's all-American image. On the political stage, 10 of the 13 elections from 1868 to 1915 include a Hoosier on the national ticket or a major party.
But not all Hoosiers share the era's pride and prosperity. For many, bitter racial discrimination, limited opportunities for women, harsh factories, labor unrest, and restrictions on immigrants tarnish the "golden age."
- ISM_120811_335.JPG: Separate and Unequal: Segregated Schools... and Society:
Segregation divides black and white Hoosiers. The two communities live, work, and play apart. Some separation is enforced by law -- in particular, by rules that bar African-American children from many schools, or that limit access to housing and jobs. Mostly, however, segregation rests on custom and tradition.
Prejudice often is unspoken, but nonetheless powerful. It dictates where African-American citizens dine, which theaters they visit, and where they worship. Nevertheless, African Americans develop many fine schools, in Evansville, Vincennes, Indianapolis, and the Calumet area.
In part, segregation reflects Indiana's Southern roots -- a legacy of the culture from which Hoosiers trace their lineage. The state's relatively small African-American population is a factor that helps to maintain segregation through social pressure, rather than legal action.
- ISM_120811_344.JPG: Intolerance! Embracing the Ku Klux Klan:
The Ku Klux Klan explodes across Indiana's political landscape in the 1920s. Its heyday is brief, but its influence is strong.
Here, as elsewhere, the Klan spreads bigotry and hate. Building on fears of immigrants and people seen as "different," it terrorizes Catholics, African Americans, and Jews. Yet most Hoosiers who join the KKK see it primarily as a social organization. Sweetening its vicious message with seemingly innocent local programs and festive gatherings, the Klan spreads rapidly.
Indiana soon has a higher percentage of Klan members than any other Northern state. The KKK gains considerable political power, using bribery and voter fraud to help elect the Republican Ed Jackson governor in 1924. It declines rapidly after 1925, when its Indiana leader is convicted of murder.
- ISM_120811_351.JPG: Stirring the Melting Pot: Immigration and Americanization:
As Indiana changes, so do the people who come here. Indiana's earliest settlers were farmers in search of land. Now they are workers in search of jobs.
Expanding factories and cities draw laborers. May are foreign born -- from Slovenia, Poland, Hungary, and elsewhere in southern and eastern Europe. Hoosiers do not generally welcome this new ethnic and cultural diversity. Their response, however, is not to keep out newcomers but to Americanize them, encouraging immigrants to abandon their language, customs, and traditional dress.
The aim is to erase differences, promoting what most Hoosiers see as a superior American culture. Many immigrants, having come in search of a new life, eagerly embrace Americanization... even while sustaining their heritage through ethnic organizations and churches.
- ISM_120811_354.JPG: Responding to Change: Hoosiers Chart a Middle Path:
Prosperity expands the economic pie in 1920s Indiana ... and brings new questions about how that pie will be divided. Bustling cities and factories, increased immigration and migration, alter communities. Social pressures build as blue-collar workers, minorities, women, and other disenfranchised groups increasingly demand their due.
The 1920s and 1930s are decades of upheaval and turmoil, spanning both boom years and economic depression. The era's social pressures breed diverse responses, from Prohibition's attempt to combat the vice that many associate with industrialization, to the Ku Klux Klan -- a retreat to fear and hate in the face of change.
Hoosiers chart a cautious, conservative course. They finally allow women the vote, then withdraw it. They rally behind Prohibition -- briefly. They join the anti-immigrant KKK, yet also launch well-meaning programs to "Americanize" immigrants. The tensions of the times abate only when the national emergency of World War II unites all Americans ... temporarily.
- ISM_120811_360.JPG: The Indiana Territory and Lewis and Clark:
On October 26, 1803 near Clarksville and the Falls of the Ohio in the southern part of what would become the State of Indiana. Meriweather Lewis and William Clark set off on an epic journey to explore the Louisiana Purchase and the Pacific Northwest. Their journey takes them down the Ohio River through the Indiana Territory governed from Vincennes by William Henry Harrison. The explorers and their team remain in the Indiana Territory until May 1804 when they start moving up the Missouri River from their winter camp near St. Louis. America's destiny is theirs to chart.
- ISM_120811_363.JPG: Conflict to Constitution: Gaining Settlers and Statehood:
Rivalries flare in the 1780s as Britain, the United States, and Native Americans confront each other. Then, in 1783, America wins independence from Britain... and wins the Old Northwest. When American settlers begin to arrive, native peoples struggle to hold on to the land that has been their home.
The young United States begins to extend its political control over the region in the 1780s. There is a steadily growing influx of settlers, and the arrival of newcomers eager for cheap farmland sparks conflicts both bitter and bloody. As the nation wrestlers with how to distribute the land, it confronts Native Americans determined to defend their homes.
In 1800, Congress splits the Northwest Territory in two: the Indiana Territory in the west, and what will become Ohio in the east. Sixteen years later, a new state carved out of this territory adopts a constitution. Indiana is born.
- ISM_120811_369.JPG: Conquer and Divide: Distributing Frontier Lands:
The lure of land draws settlers to the Northwest Territory by the thousands. For the young nation, the challenge is how to divvy it up fairly.
The federal government's Land Ordinance of 1785 lays the groundwork for an orderly system of surveying and selling land. It establishes a rectangular grid of townships, subdividing each into 640-acre (one-square mile) sections that settlers can buy for a minimum of $1 per acre -- later raised to $2.
The 640-acre minimum proves difficult for pioneers arriving with bountiful dreams but limited cash. In 1800, a federal land act reduces minimum purchases to 320 acres and allows payment on credit, making more tracts available to more settlers and setting a precedent for selling land throughout the West.
- ISM_120811_373.JPG: Defending Their Homes: Native Americans Resist:
Skirmishes flare repeatedly between Native Americans and both the U.S> troops and territorial militias. Local tribes unite, fighting to protect their homes and heritage as pioneers push them from their land.
In 1790, Little Turtle, a Miami war chief, leads a federation of Native American tribes that defeats General Josiah Harmar near Fort Wayne. This is followed, the next year, by a tremendous victory over General Arthur St. Clair, governor of the Northwest Territory, near the present Indiana-Ohio border.
The tide turns in 1794. General Anthony Wayne overcomes Little Turtle's confederation at Fallen Timbers, leading to the 1795 Treaty of Greenville. Native Americans relinquish most of Ohio and parts of southeastern Indiana, resulting in their increased displacement. In return, President Washington offers them annual payments -- which gradually undermine Native American independence.
- ISM_120811_375.JPG: "The Log Cabin Song" sheet music, 1840, supporting the successful presidential campaign of William Henry Harrison.
Although William Henry Harrison was a Virginia aristocrat by birth, his military and political service in the violent wilderness of c. 1800 Indiana positioned him to mount a successful man-of-the-people "Log Cabin Campaign" for the U.S. president in 1840. Harrison died after serving only one month in office.
- ISM_120811_396.JPG: The Road to Statehood: Admitting Territories to the Union:
How will the United States weave its immense frontier into the nation? The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 -- one of the most important documents in American history -- provides a clear process by which regions outside the original 13 colonies can join the Union as equal members.
In the three-stage process, the President appoints a territorial government. When an area's population includes 5,000 free adult male inhabitants, the government establishes a territorial legislature. Finally, when the number of free inhabitants reaches 60,000, the legislature drafts a constitution and petitions for statehood.
The Ordinance establishes a vital principle: that new territories will not become colonies but can gain full and equal rights as states. It also provides a blueprint for the U.S. Constitution, in 1789.
- ISM_120811_401.JPG: Indiana Is Born! A Structure for Statehood:
Thirty-four men gather in Corydon, capital of the Indiana Territory. Legend says they met outdoors or in, they successfully craft the state's first constitution, a vital step in gaining democratic representation for Indiana and forging a confident community able to chart its own future.
The 1816 delegates follow precedents set by the U.S. Constitution and various state constitutions. Their charter intentionally creates a weak executive branch, to prevent any individual from gaining too much power at the expense of the legislature.
Though hardly radical, the Corydon constitution calls for free education -- an innovative idea that ultimately fails for lack of funds. The constitution also prohibits slavery, a provision not enforced.
- ISM_120811_404.JPG: The Pioneer Way: Enduring Hardship and Toil:
They come by boat down the Ohio River. They come by wagon, jolting and jerking along the rough-hewn paths. They come on horseback and mile. And they walk, often hundreds of miles. Hope overcomes hardship as pioneers stream into Indiana by the tens of thousands in the early 1800s.
Migrants trek to Indiana, particularly from the neighboring "upload South" states of Kentucky, Virginia, and the Carolinas. Most of these settle in southern Indiana, along the Wabash and Ohio Rivers. Northern Indiana, more difficult to reach -- and its swampland less welcoming to would-be farmers -- becomes a refuge for many Native Americans pushed from their ancestral homes.
The state names Indianapolis its capital in 1821, in part to attract migrants to the central and northern regions. Over time, the lure of land and opportunity draws people to every corner of the state.
- ISM_120811_489.JPG: The Last Corn Palace:
In the late 19th century, several Midwestern cities built temporary structures covered in corn and other agricultural products as focal points for fairs and festivals. Large temporary "corn palaces" also became part of the annual National Corn Show that was held in different locations around the country in the early 1900s.
The city of Mitchell, South Dakota, built its first corn palace in 1892 to showcase the region's agricultural fertility as a draw to new settlers. The present version of the Mitchell Corn Palace is now the "World's Only Corn Palace." Each August, local artists sketch new mural designs that are transferred to roofing paper nailed to the mural panels covering the building. Over 275,000 ears of colored corn are nailed into place over the templates to create the murals.
- ISM_120811_513.JPG: Size Matters:
For a complete scientific description, you will need accurate measurements of the specimen you are describing. In the past, people used a wide variety of measuring techniques, including different parts of their body to denote lengths:
English System: Developed from an ancient Roman system based on units of 12, this system was formalized in England and eventually brought to the United States with a few changes along the way.
Metric System: Developed by the French Academy of Science in the late 1700s based on units of 10, and defined as one-millionth of the distance along the meridian running from the North Pole to the equator. Currently, a meter is described as the distance that light in a vacuum will travel in 1/299,792458th of a second.
Cubit: The distance from your elbow to the tip of your finger.
Hand: Width of a hand.
Span: The distance between your outstretched thumb and pinky finger (half a cubit).
Foot: Length of a foot.
- ISM_120811_521.JPG: Saving a Symbol:
You're looking at the reconstructed facade of Oscar McCulloch School No. 5. Though nominated to the National Register of Historic Places because of its lavish terra cotta decorations and its service to Indianapolis' immigrant community, the school was partially razed by the White River State Park Commission in 1985. The demolition was the culmination of a longstanding dispute over the park's inclusion and preservation of historic structures. Historic Landmarks Foundation of Indiana manages to save the building's main facade with a court injunction. Following a court hearing, a settlement was reached that assured Historic Landmarks' approval of future parks projects affecting historic structures and sites. The Commission also agreed to assemble School No. 5's facade as a feature of the new Indiana State Museum.
Historic structures are time made visible. They are part of the visual, economic and social life of a community. With original materials and workmanship often unavailable or too expensive to duplicate today, restoring or renovating historic structures can be more cost-effective than building a new building. Most importantly, historic structures add richness to our surroundings and connect us to a past that has shaped our present.
- AAA "Gem": AAA considers this location to be a "must see" point of interest. To see pictures of other areas that AAA considers to be Gems, click here.
- Wikipedia Description: Indiana State Museum
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Indiana State Museum is a museum located within White River State Park in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. The museum houses exhibits on the science, art, culture, and history of Indiana from prehistoric times up to the present day. The museum is also the site of the state's largest IMAX theater.
The museum was started in 1862 by then-state librarian R. Deloss Brown as a natural history collection. For many years, the museum was located in various rooms in the state Capitol building in Indianapolis. It was moved into its first permanent home in the old Indianapolis City Hall building at 202 N. Alabama Street in 1967. The Indiana State Museum Society was established in 1969 as a private fund-raising support organization.
The museum moved to its current location, a new building at 650 W. Washington Street, on May 22, 2002. The building on the Indiana Central Canal in White River State Park cost about $105 million.
With more than 40,000 square feet (4,000 m2) of exhibit space, and over 300,000 artifacts in collections, the museum covers the history of the natural world, Native Americans, cultural history, and the future of Indiana.
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