CA -- San Francisco -- Golden Gate Park:
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- GGP_110729_006.JPG: Dedicated to the pioneers from Japan
to America's golden shores since 1869,
leading the way
for future generations
of Japanese Americans
The Committee for Japan Week in San Francisco
- GGP_110729_046.JPG: Bandstand History:
The Music Concourse has been the cultural center of Golden Gate Park since nearly the park's inception in 1871. The current bandstand is the third location in Golden Gate Park (originally at Conservatory Valley, 1882, and later at the site of the present-day tennis courts, 1888). The bandstand has an extensive history of accommodating free concerts within the park as well as the Golden Gate Park band that has regularly played on Sundays since September of 1882.
The general arrangement of the Music Concourse is based upon Michael O'Shaughnessy's design of the Grand Court for the California Midwinter Exposition of 1894. Remnants of the Midwinter Exposition can still be seen today; the dome-topped bollards line the upper promenade (some of these are original) and the concourse stairways, rails, tunnels, and plantings have been rehabilitated over time since the Midwinter Fair. Wooden benches beneath a Bosque of pollarded sycamore and elm trees also provide a sheltering canopy in summer months as they have since the Temple of Music's construction.
The first structure to be built on the Music Concourse after the fair was the Spreckels Temple of Music (1900), also known as the bandstand, which was built with funds donated by the sugar magnate Claus Spreckels.
The Music Concourse was planned with terraces for seating around the perimeter for an anticipated capacity of 20,000. Its depressed elevation was intended to provide protection from summer winds. The Spreckels Temple of Music and the MH de Young Museum, which remained from the 1894 fair, were originally the only structures in the Music Concourse area. Other structures were added later such as the California Academy of Sciences in 1916 and the central Rideout Fountain in 1924.
- GGP_110729_059.JPG: World's Columbian Exposition
Comes to Golden Gate Park:
The idea for the California Midwinter Exposition was born during the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago of 1892. Town booster Michael de Young, founder and publisher of the San Francisco Chronicle, thought to celebrate the warm weather of California and have the first World's Fair west of the Mississippi river. De Young realized that the supplies and exhibits were already in place and would be relatively inexpensive to recycle the World's Columbian Exposition in San Francisco. Also, by using unimproved land in Golden Gate Park he could house the event for free and could heavily promote the Exposition through his newspaper. San Francisco would greatly benefit from a World's Exposition by boosting the depressed economy that was occurring throughout the United States at the time.
The Midwinter Exposition covered 160 acres and opened officially on January 27, 1894. 180 structures representing all California Counties, 4 other states, the Arizona Territory, and 18 foreign nations and villages, including a Japanese Village, were all represented on the grounds. The fair left an enduring legacy on Golden Gate Park. Several exposition displayed continued as some of the parks more popular attractions, including the Japanese Tea Garden, and two sphinxes which once guarded the Egyptian-style Fine Arts Building, predecessor to the de Young Museum.
Michael O'Shaughnessy, the chief engineer for the fairgrounds, designed the layout for the Midwinter Exposition to be centered around a grand court (modeled on the Grand Basin of the World's Fair in Chicago); O'Shaughnessy would later become City Engineer and oversee construction of the Hetch-Hetchy water system.
The fairgrounds at night took on the look of an entirely different place. Most homes were still lit with kerosene or gas. Electric lighting wasn't a novelty San Franciscans, even though the city still used 4,300 gas street lamps as late as 1927. But it was still an amazement to many visitors from small towns and rural communities; some had never before seen a working incandescent light bulb.
The bulk of the fair site returned to parkland under the diligence of part superintendant [sic] John McLaren, but the Golden Gate Park Music Concourse continues to retain much of the character of the California Midwinter Exposition and here it is still fairly easy for park visitors to recall the festive atmosphere of 1894.
- GGP_110729_103.JPG: To
Francis Scott Key
author of the national song
the Star-Spangled Banner
this monument is erected
A.D. MDCCCLCCCVII 
- GGP_110729_139.JPG: The California Academy of Sciences
before Golden Gate Park:
The California Academy of Sciences has been associated with Golden Gate Park for many years, but has actually been housed in more than four locations. The Academy of Sciences started with humble beginnings; the first building was founded in Lewis W. Sloat's office at 129 Montgomery St in San Francisco. Lewis W Sloat and Andrew Randall wrote the constitution for the Academy on April 4, 1853.
When the Academy outgrew Sloat's office, the first museum was opened in 1871 in the First Congregational Church on the corner of California and Grant (then named Dupont). In 1890, it became apparent that the Academy was outgrowing their facilities once again and proceeded to move to 819 Market St in San Francisco.
The California Academy of Sciences:
The 1906 earthquake had devastating consequences for the California Academy of Sciences. Immediately following the earthquake, dedicated staff members were able to rush to the Academy before the fire arrived and saved one cartload of precious specimens and books, however the majority of the specimen collection and library that took 50 years to collect was completely destroyed.
The Academy made a final move to the Music Concourse in Golden Gate Park in 1916. The museum in Golden Gate Park was expanded through decades of renovations and additions including the Steinhart Aquarium in 1923, the ALexander F Morrison Planetarium in 1952 and Cowell Hall in 1969. Due to long-term wear and tear caused by over 100 million visitors and damage caused by the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, the first Golden Gate Park building was closed in early 2004 to make way for the new Renzo Piano designed Academy of Sciences building.
The facade of the 1916 building was incorporated in the new design of the building and can be seen flanking the main entrance. The California Academy of Sciences has a rich history of education and technology and the current building is no exception.
- GGP_110729_169.JPG: Gustave Dore (1932-1883)
Poeme de la Vigne, 1877-1878
Gustave Dore created this vase for French winemakers, who exhibited it at the 1878 Paris World's Fair. It represents an allegory of the annual wine vintage, taking the shape of a colossal wine vessel decorated with figures associated with the rites of Bacchus (the Roman god of wine). The revelers include cupids, satyrs, and bacchantes, who protect the grape vines from pests. The foundry shipped this bronze version of the vase to Chicago for the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 and then to San Francisco for the 1894 California Midwinter International Exposition. M H de Young purchased the vase at the fair's end and later donated it to the de Young Museum.
- GGP_110729_238.JPG: Lantern of Peace:
The early days of World War II were especially dark for San Franciscans of Japanese ancestry. In the period following outbreak of war, entire families were uprooted from their homes in San Francisco and evacuated inland to internment camps. Among these were the descendants of Makoto Higiwara. During this period of hysteria, the Japanese Tea Garden was renamed the Oriental Tea Garden. However, it was eventually reinstated as the Japanese Tea Garden in 1952 with new exhibits and a 9,000 pound Lantern of Peace. Today the Japanese Tea Garden continues to be one of the most celebrated and visited sites in Golden Gate Park and is the oldest Japanese Garden in the United States.
Japanese Tea Garden:
In the winter of 1894, the California Midwinter Exposition arrived in Golden Gate Park. So,e of the most popular attractions at the fair were exhibits of people from around the world; Native Americans, Egyptians, Aleutians, Hawaiians, Turks, South Sea Islanders, Chinese, and Japanese all had their own village. Each village had elements unique to that region of the world, which included traditional dress, architecture, crafts, entertainment, and food. Interestingly, the first fortune cookie sold in the United States was at the Japanese Village during the fair.
An advocate for the Exposition was an Australian named George Turner Marsh (Marsh hailed from Richmond, Australia and is credited with naming the area surrounding his home on 13th Avenue, The Richmond). Before coming to San Francisco, Marsh had lived for many years in Japan, and was interested in traditional Japanese gardens. Marsh, who spoke Japanese fluently, brought materials and hired craftsmen directly from Japan to help create the Japanese Village. One of these craftsmen was Makoto Hagiwara, who along with Marsh was largely responsible for the design and construction of the Japanese village.
Makota Hagiwara's vision for the village was to create a rural style garden, using the "Hill and Water" landscape concept to fit into the Japanese Village atmosphere. At the end of the exposition, Hagiwara was put in charge of the Japanese Tea Garden, and his family became residents of Golden Gate Park. In 1909, Hagiwara constructed a large 17-room house in today's Sunken Garden area for his family and for newly arrived immigrants from Japan, who offered their services as gardeners in exchange for free board, while they studied to become citizens.
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- Wikipedia Description: Golden Gate Park
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Golden Gate Park, located in San Francisco, California, is a large urban park. At 1017 acres (4.1 km², 1.6 mi²), it is in the shape of a long rectangle, similar in shape but 174 acres (0.7 km², 0.27 mi²) larger than Central Park in New York. With 13 million visitors annually, Golden Gate is the third most visited city park in America (after Central Park and Lincoln Park in Chicago).
In the 1860s, San Franciscans began to feel the need for a spacious public park like the one that was taking shape in New York. Golden Gate Park was carved out of unpromising sand and shore dunes that were known as the "outside lands" in an unincorporated area west of then-San Francisco's borders. Although the park was conceived under the guise of recreation, the underlying justification was to attract housing development and provide for the westward expansion of The City. The tireless field engineer William Hammond Hall prepared a survey and topographic map of the park site in 1870 and became commissioner in 1871. He was later named California's first State Engineer and developed an integrated flood control system for the Sacramento Valley when he was not working on Golden Gate Park.
The actual plan and planting were developed by Hall and his assistant, John McLaren, who had apprenticed in Scotland, the homeland of many of the nineteenth century's best professional gardeners. The initial plan called for grade separations of transverse roadways through the park, as Frederick Law Olmsted had provided for Central Park, but budget constraints and the positioning of the Arboretum and the Concourse aborted the plan. In 1876, the plan was almost exchanged for a racetrack favored by "the Big Four" millionaires, Leland Stanford, Mark Hopkins, Collis P. Huntington, and Charles Crocker. Hall resigned and all the park commissioners followed him. Fortunately for the city, the original plan was soon back on track. By 1886, streetcars delivered over 47,000 people to Golden Gate Park on one weekend afternoon; the city's population at the time was about 250,000. Hall selected McLaren as his successor in 1887.
The first stage stabilized the ocean dunes that covered three-quarters of the park area with tree plantings. By 1875, about 60,000 trees, mostly Blue Gum Eucalyptus, Monterey pine and Monterey cypress, were planted. By 1879, that figure more than doubled to 155,000 trees over 1,000 acres (4 km²). Later McLaren scoured the world through his correspondents for trees. When McLaren refused to retire at age 60, as was customary, the San Francisco city government was bombarded with letters: when he reached 70, a charter amendment was passed to exempt him from forced retirement. He lived in McLaren Lodge in Golden Gate Park until he died at age 90, in 1943.
In 1903, a pair of Dutch-style windmills were built at the extreme western end of the park. These pumped water throughout the park. The north windmill has been restored to its original appearance and is adjacent to a flower garden, a gift of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands. These are planted with tulip bulbs for winter display and other flowers in appropriate seasons. Murphy's Windmill in the south of the park is currently being restored.
Most of the water used for landscape watering and for various water features is now provided by the use of highly processed and recycled effluent from the city's sewage treatment plant, located at the beach some miles away to the south near the San Francisco Zoo. In the 1950s the use of this effluent during cold weather caused some consternation, with the introduction of artificial detergents but before the advent of modern biodegradable products. These "hard" detergents would cause long-lasting billowing piles of foam to form on the creeks connecting the artificial lakes and could even be blown onto the roads, forming a traffic hazard.
Japanese Tea Garden:
The five acre (20,000 m²) Japanese tea garden at Golden Gate Park is an immensely popular feature.
The Music Concourse Area:
The Music Concourse is an open area with three water fountains surrounded with maple trees positioned uniformly. There is also a stage on the east side. The buildings near the concourse area include The California Academy of Sciences and De Young Museum.
In 2003, the Music Concourse is also undergoing a series improvements to include an underground 800-car parking garage, narrowing of the roadways in the Music Concourse, the addition of bike lanes, and the elimination of existing surface parking.
De Young Museum:
Named for M. H. de Young, the San Francisco newspaper magnate, the De Young Museum was opened January 1921. Its original building had been part of The California Midwinter International Exposition of 1894, of which Mr. de Young was the director. The de Young has been completely rebuilt and re-opened in 2005.
Academy of Sciences:
The California Academy of Sciences is one of the largest natural history museums in the world, and also houses the Steinhart Aquarium and the Morrison Planetarium. The Academy of Sciences carries exhibits of reptiles and amphibians, astronomy, prehistoric life, various gems and minerals, earthquakes, and aquatic life.
In September 12, 2005, Academy of Sciences started a complete reconstruction, with completion scheduled for 2008; until then it is temporarily located downtown in the SoMa area.
San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum:
The San Francisco Botanical Garden at Strybing Arboretum was laid out in the 1890s, but funding was insufficient until Helene Strybing willed funds in 1926. Planting was begun in 1937 with WPA funds supplemented by local donations. This 55 acre (222,500 m²) arboretum contains more than 7,500 plant species.
AIDS Memorial Grove:
The AIDS Memorial Grove has been in progress since 1988 and is still the only national AIDS memorial in the U.S.. The Grove's executive director, Thom Weyand, has said that "part of the beauty of the grove is that as a memorial which receives no federal money, it is blessedly removed from the fight over the controversy of AIDS."
Stow Lake surrounds the prominent Strawberry Hill, now an island with an electrically pumped waterfall. Rowboats, pedalboats, and electrically powered boats can be rented at the boathouse. Much of the western portion of San Francisco can be seen from the top of this hill, which at its top contains one of the reservoirs that supply a network of high-pressure water mains that exclusively supply specialized fire hydrants throughout the city.
Spreckels Lake is located on the northern side of the park near 36th Avenue. One can usually find model yachts sailing on Spreckels Lake. Many of these are of the type used before the advent of the modern radio controlled model. The yachts are set up by their owners, and most include either an auxiliary wind vane or main sheet linkage to control the rudder in response to varying wind conditions. The yachts are then released, and pole handlers will walk down each side of the lake with a padded pole to prevent the yachts from colliding with the lake edge. The lake has been specifically designed for this type of operation, as it has a vertical edging (allowing the yachts to closely approach the shore) and a paved walkway around the entire edge. At one location near a grassy area, "duckling ramps" allow young wildlife to leave the pond safely.
Conservatory of Flowers:
The Conservatory of Flowers is one of the world's largest conservatories built of traditional wood and glass panes. It was prefabricated for local entrepreneur James Lick for his Santa Clara, California, estate but was still in its crates when he died in 1876. A group of San Franciscans bought it and offered it to the city, and it was erected in Golden Gate Park and opened to the public in 1879. In 1883, a boiler exploded and the main dome caught fire. A restoration was undertaken by Southern Pacific magnate Charles Crocker. It survived the earthquake of 1906 only to suffer another fire in 1918. In 1933 it was declared unsound and closed to the public, only to be reopened in 1946. In 1995, after a severe storm with 100 mph (160 km/h) winds damaged the structure, shattering 40% of the glass, the conservatory had to be closed again. It was cautiously dissected for repairs and finally reopened in September 2003.
Kezar Stadium, the one-time home of the AAFC and NFL San Francisco 49ers, was built between 1922 and 1925 in the southeast corner of the park. The old 59,000-seat stadium was demolished in 1989 and replaced with a modern 9,044-seat stadium. The Stadium is currently home to the San Francisco Dragons.
John F. Kennedy Drive:
John F. Kennedy Memorial Drive was the new name for North Drive, winding from the East end of the park to the Great Highway after the Kennedy Assassination. The portion east of the 19th Avenue park crossing is closed to motor traffic on Sundays and holidays, providing a popular oasis for pedestrians, bicyclists, and skaters. In 1983 the other major transverse road, South Drive, was renamed as Martin Luther King Jr. Drive.
There are also a number of more naturalistically landscaped lakes throughout the park, several linked together into chains, with pumped water creating flowing creeks.
Golden Gate Park in Film:
San Francisco has a long, storied history of being featured in film, but possibly because of its relative seclusion from downtown areas and limited vistas of major landmarks, Golden Gate Park has rarely enjoyed the cinematic spotlight, though Charlie Chaplin filmed scenes for at least two movies there (A Jitney Elopement and In the Park, both from 1915). The cloaked Klingon ship in Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home lands in the park, but the filming was done elsewhere.
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